Bachelor of Dental Surgery

Bachelor of Dental Surgery

JCU Inherent Requirements for Bachelor of Dental Surgery (73010)

Inherent requirements are the fundamental abilities, attributes, skills and behaviours needed to complete the learning outcomes of a course while preserving the academic integrity of the university’s learning, assessment and accreditation processes.

In addition, students in Dentistry must be able to fulfill the accreditation requirements of the Australian Dental Council (ADC) in order to be registered with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) as students and on graduation as clinical practitioners.

Students and prospective students must be able to demonstrate that they have acquired or have the ability to acquire the inherent requirements for their degree. Reasonable adjustments may be implemented to assist students to manage additional circumstances impacting on their studies, provided these do not fundamentally change the academic integrity of a degree or are in conflict with the accreditation requirements of the ADC.

Persons wishing to enrol in the Bachelor of Dental Surgery should read these requirements in conjunction with the course handbook.

Students should carefully consider the inherent requirements statement below as a guide to their learning during the course, and as a way to identify early possible challenges they may have in meeting these requirements.

Prospective students who remain interested or engaged in the course should discuss their concerns with College staff, such as the Course Coordinator, as soon as possible. If the challenges are related to a disability or health condition, students should contact AccessAbility Services to discuss possible strategies and reasonable adjustments.

If the inherent requirements cannot be met with reasonable adjustments, JCU staff may provide guidance regarding other study options.

Reasonable adjustments

Reasonable adjustments must:

  • Be consistent with legislative and regulatory requirements, and not compromise codes, guidelines and policies
  • Not result in unethical or unprofessional behaviour
  • Meet the necessary standards of timeliness, accuracy and functional effectiveness to ensure that self and patient care, treatment or safety is not compromised
  • Address the need to perform the full range of tasks involved in clinical practice, including undertaking learning activities in mixed gender environments, which reflect the Australian context, and
  • Ensure that performance is consistent and sustained over a given period.

Legal

Inherent Requirement

Compliance with Australian Law and professional regulations.

Rationale

Knowledge, understanding, and compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements are necessary in order to reduce the risk of harm to self and others in clinical and related settings; compliance with these professional regulations and the Australian Law ensures students are both responsible and accountable for their practice.

Examples

  • Respond to the requirements for student registration with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA)
  • Comply with relevant legislation including child protection and safety, work health and safety, and anti-discrimination legislation

Ethical and professional behaviour

Inherent Requirement

Ethical and professional behaviour in academic and clinical/professional environments

Rationale

Compliance with University and Australian Dental Council (ADC) standards, codes, guidelines and policies that facilitates safe, competent interactions and relationships for students and the people they engage with in the many environments of practice is required for the physical, psychological, emotional and spiritual wellbeing of all.

Examples

  • Comply with academic and non-academic conduct codes and policies and professional standards
  • Identify and enact relevant applications of these codes and standards, including those relating to   plagiarism, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and equitable and respectful behaviour in academic and clinical settings.

Safe practice

Inherent Requirement

Compliance with safe practice sufficient to meet patient care needs, including considerations of current scope of practice, diagnosis and appropriate treatment, workplace health and safety and infection control

Rationale

Compliance with current scope of practice, diagnosis and appropriate treatment, workplace health and safety, infection control considerations and effective and timely response to alarm systems are required to provide safe environments for students, staff and others.

Examples

  • Limit task performance to current scope of practice
  • Comply with relevant Workplace Health & Safety policies for equipment use and storage
  • Remain up to date with first-aid and CPR knowledge and practice
  • Work safely with clients with infectious diseases and with reduced immunity
  • Be able to respond to alarm systems to maintain safety and/or effective health management for self and patients

Cognition

Knowledge and cognitive skills

Inherent Requirement

Knowledge acquisition, utilisation and retention spanning and drawing together all coursework subjects. Cognitive skills for focus, memory, attention to detail, theoretical deliberation, and practical functioning sufficient to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

Understanding and retention of coursework information and the effective processing of this information is required for appropriate, safe and effective delivery of care.

Examples

  • Make safe and appropriate patient care decisions from retained knowledge
  • Assess the application of policy and procedures in the context of clinical situations;
  • Source research and use an evidence based framework to make sound decisions between clinical management options
  • Perform clinical history assessment, formulation of diagnosis and structuring of treatments plans appropriate to patients’ needs
  • Notice and respond effectively to critical small changes in instructions, measurements or observable symptoms

Metacognition

Inherent Requirement

Awareness of own thinking, and skills to reflect, evaluate, adapt and implement new cognitive strategies for improved learning and patient care.

Rationale

Understanding and ongoing learning about oneself as an instrument in patient care is required for safe and effective delivery of practice.

Examples

  • Review the outcome of treatment for a patient's particular symptom presentation and then adapt own knowledge for future clinical decisions
  • Review and reflect on personal responses and cultural paradigms around patient care challenges, and develop safe, effective and professional care approaches
  • Manage and proactively learn from academic and clinical set-backs by self-evaluation
  • Reflect on the options, ethical implications, and impact for all the stakeholders in patient care decisions
  • Be aware of, and take responsibility for, own personal role in the patient care process

Literacy

Inherent Requirement

English literacy skills that allow the creation and interpretation of clear meaning for patient care through a range of symbols and English language text.

Rationale

Patient care information can be delivered by many different modes and competent literacy skills for these are essential to provide appropriate, safe and effective delivery of care/practice.

Examples

  • Comprehend, summarise and reference a range of literature in accordance with appropriate academic conventions in written assignments
  • Interpret clinical data, photographs, radiographs and information from special tests
  • Produce accurate, concise and clear medical notes, records, reports, diagnostic requests, prescriptions and documentation that meets legal requirements.

Numeracy

Inherent Requirement

Accurate processing and reasoning with numbers and numerical concepts for patient care decisions.

Rationale

Competent reasoning and reliable accuracy with numerical concepts are essential for safe and effective care/practice.

Examples

  • Calculate correct drug dosages in a time- constrained environment
  • Calculate a patient's fluid balance status from observation records
  • Accurately read and interpret blood test results
  • Make accurate calculations of dimensions from radiographic and electronic data

Communication

Verbal communication

Inherent Requirement

Verbal communication in English to a standard that allows fluid, clear, and comprehensible two-way discussions for patient care, tailored to the local English-speaking audiences.

Rationale

Effective verbal communication, in English, with patients and university and clinical staff is required for effective learning and to provide safe and effective delivery of care/practice.

Examples

  • Understand and respond to verbal communication accurately and appropriately in a time-constrained environment when a patient provides vital bedside information
  • Build rapport with a patient to encourage full disclosure of symptoms
  • Present information more formally to, and engage in developing discussions with, a wider audience, including clinical presentations

Non-verbal communication

Inherent Requirement

Non-verbal communication skills that enable respectful communication with others to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

The ability to recognise, interpret and respond to non-verbal cues, to communicate with congruent and respectful non-verbal behaviour, and to be sensitive to individual and/or cultural variations in non-verbal communication is essential for safe and effective care.

Examples

  • Recognise cues in facial expression, appearance, behaviour, posture, movement for a patient from another culture with no speech
  • Deliver information to a distressed patient/client incorporating non-verbal behaviour that matches the nature of the information
  • Recognise and adjust to differing touch preferences of patients

Written communication

Inherent Requirement

Ability to produce English text to a standard that provides clear and professional-level communication for patient care, with language usage and style tailored to the targeted recipients.

Rationale

Effective communication in English text is required to demonstrate applied skills in academic writing conventions and in sustained and organised academic argument and provide safe and effective delivery of care/practice.

Examples

  • Communicate complex academic and clinical perspectives in writing
  • Summarise and appropriately reference a range of literature in written assignments
  • Use precise and appropriate language to contribute to both handwritten and electronic medical records in a time-constrained environment

Sensory ability

Visual

Inherent Requirement

Ability to interact with visual inputs, close up imaging, and stereoscopic discrimination sufficiently to manage learning environments and to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

Elements in the working and teaching environment are delivered by visual means, and the ability to learn from or respond to these inputs is required to provide safe and effective practice.

Examples

  • Be able to clearly operate to a fine level of resolution within the visual operating and surgical field
  • Detect subtle visual changes in a patient's posture, movement, ability to perform functional activities and other responses to therapeutic interactions
  • Set-up and safely use instruments, analgesic drugs and materials for clinical dental treatment and minor surgery
  • Process visual information from diagnostic instrumentation, ECG traces, radiographs, electronically displayed x-rays, oxygen flow meters, wall-posted information, handwritten and electronic medical records
  • Monitor the broader environment for patient safety

Auditory

Inherent Requirement

Ability to interact with auditory inputs sufficiently to manage learning environments and to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

Elements in the learning and working environments are delivered by auditory means, and the ability to learn from or respond to these inputs is required to provide safe and effective practice.

Examples

  • Detect and discriminate changes in pain or breathing sounds
  • Detect and discriminate heart sounds
  • Detect and discriminate alarms, emergency calls over PA systems, and urgent verbal information for patient care
  • Follow developing discussions with colleagues for patient care decisions

Tactile

Inherent Requirement

Ability to respond to a fine level of tactile input and provide tactile interaction sufficient to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

Elements in the working environment are detected and measured by tactile means directly and via instruments, and the ability to learn from or respond to these inputs is required to provide safe and effective practice. The appropriate use of touch as a part of effective patient care is also required.

Examples

  • Detect and discriminate fine levels of hardness, softness and elasticity and provide accurate and appropriate level of feedback to motor skills
  • Apply appropriate pressure when inserting needles or using dental instruments
  • Provide patient care through appropriate and reassuring touch

Motor ability

Gross motor ability

Inherent Requirement

Strength, range of motion, coordination and mobility sufficient to meet patient care needs.

Rationale

A wide range of physical patient care actions in a time-constrained environment is required to provide safe and effective practice.

Examples

  • Instigate and contribute to emergency life support
  • Move readily around patients, between work areas and patients, and around varying surfaces and levels, to complete tasks within timeframes
  • Access around bedside equipment, across and patients, across sterile areas without contaminating surfaces
  • Maintain balance and safely assess patient motor function and strength
  • Effectively ascertain patient information from percussion or palpation of a patient's body parts

Fine motor ability

Inherent Requirement

Manual dexterity and fine motor skills sufficient to meet patient care needs and meeting safe clinical practice.

Rationale

A wide range of fine-motor manual tasks in a time-constrained environment are required to provide safe and effective practice.

Examples

  • Manipulating dental instruments with a high level of accuracy and precision for patient care resulting in the delivery of safe practice e.g. cutting, pulling and twisting
  • Contribute to both handwritten and electronic medical records.

Sustained performance

Inherent Requirement

Sustained physical, cognitive and psychosocial performance sufficient to provide safe and complete patient care in a time-constrained environment.

Rationale

A range of complex, multi-component or extended patient care tasks carried out over a period of time and in a time-constrained environment is required to provide safe and effective practice.

Examples

  • Sustain study practices and clinical performance to sufficiently engage with the learning workload for a study period, and for the degree and accreditation requirements, within a constrained timeframe
  • Sustain a working posture, associated manual tasks, cognitive engagement, performance level and emotional control for the full duration of a patient care process e.g. lumbar puncture on a child; initial assessment of a multiple-trauma burn patient; successive and extended patient assessments with minimal breaks
  • Sustain performance for durations that are manageable within overall shift-planning for patient care.

Behavioural adaptability

Inherent Requirement

Behaviour that adapts to changing situations sufficiently to maintain safe and complete patient care, and instigates self-care consistent with professional expectations.

Rationale

Behavioural adaptation is required to manage personal emotional responses as an individual and within teams in changing and unpredictable environments, including emergency situations and times of human distress. Students will also be required to adapt their behaviour appropriately during times of additional stressors in their own lives, whether this adaptation involves ways of continuing to engage with their role or withdrawing for self-care for a period.

Examples

  • Adjust ways of working to work within teams of varied personal and professional backgrounds and clinical opinions to facilitate effective patient decisions
  • Cope with own emotions and behaviour effectively when dealing with changing responses of individuals and families in the clinical setting
  • Be receptive and respond appropriately to constructive feedback
  • Maintain respectful communication practices in times of increased stressors or workloads
  • Adjust to changing circumstances in a way that allows self-care while maintaining a professional-level focus on the patient.