A briefing paper succinctly outlines a particular issue and its background, usually for a committee, policy makers, government officials etc. It recommends improvements and proposes solutions based on evidence and concise argument. A briefing paper may be approximately four pages in length.
A case study analysis involves students assessing the details of a realistic and often complex case, in order to try and understand what has happened and why, or to identify the major problems that exist and recommend solutions to these problems.
(In business) A case study is a description of an administrative situation, wherein students may be required to assume the role of the manager and engage in processes that include defining the issue(s), analysing the case data, generating alternative solutions, identifying decision criteria, evaluating alternatives, selecting the preferred solution, and developing an action/implementation plan.
A response to a client may require students to provide follow up on a client’s particular queries, requests, goals or complaints, in a professional manner.
Critical incident analysis involves focusing on an event, including analysing the circumstances surrounding it, the actions of those involved, responses to the event and the outcomes. The result should be a better understanding of how practice can be improved.
An elevator pitch is very short presentation of a product or a company, with the aim of providing clarity or attracting attention.
An ethical dilemma is a situation in which the student must choose between courses of action and no matter what choice of action is taken, some ethical principle will be compromised or transgressed. (Ethical principles are standards that are used by members of a profession or group to determine the right course of action in a situation.)
An internship is a carefully monitored work experience in which interns are afforded the opportunity to integrate theory with the practice of work. Interns work for a fixed period of time, usually three to six months. Intended learning outcomes and associated activities may be articulated in a work plan.
An interview is a formal meeting in which one or more persons question, consult or evaluate the interviewee. Students may be required to assume the role of interviewer or interviewee.
A job application usually includes submission of a cover letter, curriculum vitae/resume and response to selection criteria. A cover letter explains the applicant's credentials and interest in the position. A curriculum vitae outlines the applicant’s education, qualifications and previous employment history. A selection criteria statement comprises succinct responses to each of the selection criteria, i.e. how the applicant possesses the particular knowledge, attributes, qualifications and experience needed to successfully carry out the job.
A journal is a record of occurrences, experiences and/or reflections kept on a regular basis.
A learning contract is a structured method whereby students, in consultation with a staff advisor, design and implement manageable learning and assessment activities. The emphasis is on making each activity relevant to the particular professional and personal needs of the students, in light of the intended outcomes of the course and/or subject.
A letter is a written or printed communication addressed to a person or organisation.
A log is an official documentation of activities or events in a systematic record (e.g. daily or hourly basis).
A media article is a written composition in prose, usually non-fiction, on a specific topic, forming an independent part of print or online newspapers or magazines.
A memorandum is a short note designating something to be remembered, especially something to be done or acted upon in the future. Depending on the disciplinary context, a memorandum may be: (in law) a short document outlining the terms of an agreement, especially as a draft leading to a formal, detailed contract; (in diplomacy) a brief, unsigned diplomatic communication, including a summary of the state of an issue and the reasons for decisions agreed upon; (in business) an informal message, especially one sent between two or more employees of the same company, concerning company business.
Minutes are permanent, formal and detailed (although not a verbatim) record of resolutions adopted or business transacted at an official meeting. Once written up and approved at the next meeting, the minutes are accepted as a true representation of proceedings.
A moot court involves law students taking part in simulated court proceedings, drafting memorials or memoranda and participating in oral argument.
Depending on the disciplinary context, a case note may be: (in law) a summary and analysis of the facts of a legal case, especially to illustrate or debate some aspect of law; (in clinical practice) a record of the condition or treatment of a patient or client receiving medical or health related attention; (in social work) a chronological record of interactions, observations and actions, relating to a particular client.
Observations involve the active acquisition of information from a primary source through the senses or scientific tools and instruments. Observations may comprise data recorded during an experiment or assessment.
Peer review or peer assessment is the evaluation of students' work by other students of equal status, against a predetermined set of criteria. Peer review may be undertaken in the context of group assessment. Typically, group members assess the performance of their peers in terms of their contribution to group processes and submitted work.
The placement/professional experience is undertaken in a workplace or community context and affords students the opportunity to integrate theory with the practice of work. Professional experience placements are typically aligned with professional standards that are developed and assured over the duration a course. Both the academic supervisor and professional/industry supervisor may contribute to assessment of students’ performance in placements/ professional experience.
An action plan documents detailed action steps that must be taken in order to achieve one or more goals. Its purpose is to outline a series of specific tasks, how they will be undertaken, staff responsible for their completion, associated timelines and requisite resources and funding.
A business plan is a written document that describes in detail how a business, usually a new one, is going to achieve its goals. A business plan lays out a written plan from a marketing, financial and operational viewpoint. Sometimes, a business plan is prepared for an established business that is moving in a new direction.
A project plan presents an overview of the project, its aims and objectives, stakeholders, scheduled activities, resources, timelines and opportunities for dissemination, reflection and evaluation. It may be a plan for a capstone or service learning project.
(In business) A project plan is a formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The key purposes of the project plan are to outline planning assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among project stakeholders, and document approved scope, cost and schedule baselines.
A teaching lesson or unit plan articulates intended student learning outcomes, instructional steps/learning activities, allocated time, resources and assessment tasks.
A portfolio is a collection of evidence of students’ learning and achievement. Evidence may include written samples, photos, videos, project artefacts, observations/assessments by mentors and peers, and personal reflections, regarding why particular artefacts were chosen and what was learnt. ePortfolios can be maintained dynamically over time.
Prelab preparation comprises activities designed so that students are more likely to acquire the targeted laboratory skills and gain the maximum benefit from the laboratory learning environment. Prelab preparation may include students engaging with visual and audio presentations, reading materials, responding to questions and quizzes, and/or constructing flow diagrams of the method.
A formal address to an audience comprising industry or members of the community.
A business proposal is a written document that offers a particular product or service to a potential buyer or client. There are generally two kinds of business proposals: solicited business proposals (submitted in response to an advertisement, published by the buyer or client) and unsolicited proposals(submitted to potential buyers or clients).
A project proposal is a document containing key information about a proposed project, which is presented to potential sponsors or clients, in order to receive funding or approval.
A reflection or reflective task typically requires students to describe and critically analyse professional experiences or practice, in light of theoretical literature or available evidence, with a view to enhancement of future practice.
An analytical/statistical report combines graphics and text to communicate the results of statistical and data analyses, pertaining to a particular issue or context. A statistical report may have a broad audience, such as policy makers, researchers and service providers, and is thus written to be easy to access and understand.
(In business) An analytical report introduces a problem and presents well-documented research to arrive at key recommendations and evaluative criteria to identify the best solution/s.
A business report is concerned with business activities (i.e. the company's situation, business trend and financial activities). Examples of business reports include financial plans, customer service reviews and marketing research results.
(In engineering) A design report has a very specific purpose and structure. It communicates the whole design process and includes the following sections: executive summary; problem definition, refinement and background (introduction); background research and investigation (literature review); development of design alternatives and initial evaluation (design approach); detailed analysis and testing (numerical or experimental or both) of refined design (final design and analysis); prototype testing and evaluation (optional); conclusions and recommendations; technical and manufacturing drawings. All engineering disciplines use this structure for design reporting.
A field report consists of a description of what has been seen or observed in the field and an analysis of the observations in light of theoretical frameworks or principles.
(In science) A field report may present the purpose of field experiments, their location, methodologies, results, interpretations and conclusions.
(In social sciences) A field report may present observations of people, places and/or events and analyses of that observation data, in order to identify and categorize common themes, in relation to the research problem or question.
A laboratory report is written in the format of the traditional scientific report. Depending on the type of laboratory task or scientific research investigation, the sections of the report may vary and include: title, abstract, aims and hypotheses, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, references and appendices.
A project report typically presents an overview of the project, its aims and objectives, activities, outcomes conclusions, reflections and evaluation.
A technical report is used in industry to communicate technical information and research about technical concepts, as well as graphical depictions of designs and data. This information assists in decision making (e.g. in the purchase of equipment or finding solutions to technical problems). An important consideration when preparing technical reports is the audience and purpose of the report (e.g. to brief managers or to provide technical background information for lay people associated with the project). These factors determine the degree of technicality of the language and concepts involved. At university, technical report writing is frequently used in faculties of engineering and in the applied sciences.
A role play requires students to assume the attitudes, actions and discourses of others, in adopted roles, in an effort to understand differing points of view or social interactions.
A scenario-based learning activity involves students working through a real-world scenario or storyline, usually based around an ill-structured or complex problem, which they are required to solve. In the process, students are required to apply their knowledge and critical thinking and problem solving skills. Scenario-based learning is often non-linear and can provide numerous feedback opportunities to students, based on the decisions they make at each stage in the process. Scenario-based learning may be self-contained, in that completing the scenario is the entire task, or it may be the first part of a larger assessment task.
Self-assessment or self-review can serve as a powerful meta-cognitive tool. It engages students in the learning process, developing their capacity to critically evaluate their own work, against a predetermined set of criteria.
A simulation activity is an action within a model or reproduction of a workplace or other real world environment.
An analytical account/assessment of factors and processes impacting task/project success.
A workbook may contain exercises, problems and practice material to clarify and reinforce knowledge and skills within a subject of study.