Library Services Copyright Copyright Acronyms and Terminology

Copyright Acronyms and Terminology

Some of the more common acronyms and terminology associated with copyright.


APRA AMCOS – Australasian Performing Rights Association Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society

ARIA – Australian Recording Industry Association

CAL – Copyright Agency Limited

PPCA – Phonographic Performance Company of Australia


Artistic Works – Includes photos, paintings, drawings, diagrams, engravings, sculpture, buildings and models of buildings, animations, etc.

Audio-Visual – Any sound recording or broadcast, t.v. broadcast, or film (any format).

Australian Copyright Council – An independent not for profit organisation providing information, advice and training about copyright in Australia.

Broadcast Audio Visual Material – Defined under Part VA of the Copyright Act, as television and radio broadcasts.

Communication – Communication means to make available online or transmit electronically transmit to another person or persons.

Copy Protected – Encoding included on some copyrighted software to prevent copying e.g. encryption or special.

Copyright – The legal rights of a work's creator to ownership of their material. For published works this is generally 70 years from the death of the author. Permission is required to utilise another's work unless copying is done under the allowances of the Copyright Act 1968 or within the University /Copyright Agency Limited or music societies licences. See the JCU Copyright website for more information.

Copyright Agency Limited – An Australian Government appointed copyright management company administering the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968 for licensed copying by educational institutions for educational purposes.

Copyright Notices – Notices required to be displayed under the Copyright Act 1968 and/or to conform with the copyright licences entered into by JCU.

Creative Commons – Licences enabling creators to retain some rights to their work whilst making them easier for users to access and utilise.

Demoware – Demoware are reduced commercial software. Users can test a programme but to have full access, the item must be purchased.

Deposit – A copy of an item deposited with a Library for posterity. A legal requirement for Australian published materials.

Dramatic Works – Includes plays, film scripts, etc.

Fair Dealing – Fair copying under the Copyright Act 1968 of copyright material for the purposes of research and study, or criticism and review.

Freeware – These items are protected by copyright, but the owner has given permission for free non-commercial distribution. You should read the copyright terms to determine if the author has retained any distribution rights. For example, many "freeware" copyrights require you to obtain permission before including the software in a commercial product.

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Literary works – Includes books, letters, journal articles, song lyrics, instruction manuals, catalogues, poems, term papers, computer programs, etc. Even a train timetable is considered a literary work and as such is covered by copyright.

MasterFile – Concord software enabling storage and management of all types of electronic files used by JCU for Reserve Online.

Moral Rights – relate to the creator's reputation in connection with their work. You must give the creator of a literary, artistic, musical, dramatic work or computer program or film attribution and use their work with integrity.

Music Scores – Written music, not recorded music.

Music Societies – Collective term to cover AMCOS, APRA, ARIA, and PPCA, all of whom represent various aspects of the music industry's interests.

P2P / Peer-to-Peer – P2P or Peer-to-Peer software facilitates the sharing of files between computer user, e.g. Skype.

Public Domain – Unrestricted material placed in the public domain.

Reserve Online – Reserve Online is JCU's central repository for digitised readings and past exam papers.

Right of Attribution – Work must be attributed to the work's creator when you reproduce a work or film and it should be accurate, clear and visible so that anyone subsequently using the material recognises its creator.

Right of Integrity – A creator's work should be respected and not subject to derogatory treatment such as distortion or modification.

Shareware – Commercial programs distributed under an honour system enabling downloading and limited period use of an item prior to purchase.

Subject Matter – Other Than Works Materials including audiovisual items, such as films, including on DVD, CD-ROM, Website, also sound recordings such as MP3 files, CD's, tapes, records, and podcasts.

Substantial Part – Generally, 'an important part' of the work,e.g. a part that is distinctive or recognisable.

Teaching Purposes – Copying under the licences must be for teaching purposes i.e. used to teach students, making the copy available to students, or communicating to students, as part of a course of study at the University, retention of a copy in the University library (or held by a staff member) as a teaching resource, or in the administration of students and courses.

Third Party Copyright – Copyright material to which another person/entity holds the rights e.g. an article published in a journal.