ERA Research Outputs

Definition of Research
For the purposes of ERA, research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it is new and creative.

Eligible Research Output Types

Non-traditional Research Output Types: Creative Works

Research Output Criteria

For institutions to submit information on a research output, the research output must meet all of the following criteria:

  • Meet the definition of research;

  • Have been published or brought into the public domain within the research outputs reference period 2005 - 2010

  • Have one or more eligible researchers listed as an author of the research output; and

  • Be an eligible research output type (see section 5.4 of the ERA 2012 Submission Guidelines.)

Eligible Research Output Types

  • Books-Authored Research;

  • Book-Chapters in Research Book;

  • Journal Articles-Refereed, in a ranked Journal; and

  • Conference Publications-Full Paper Refereed.

Books-Authored Research

Institutions are required to submit information on all eligible books for each year of the research outputs reference period.

Eligible books are those that meet all of the following criteria:

  • Be a major work of scholarship;

  • Be offered for sale in the form of:

    • hard copies, bound,

    • CD-ROMs, packaged, and/or

    • e-books, on subscription or fee basis;

  • Have an International Standard Book Number (ISBN);

  • Be entirely written by a single author, or by joint authors who share responsibility for the whole book; and

  • Have been published by a commercial publisher.

The following types of books are likely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Book’ output type:

  • critical scholarly texts;

  • new interpretations of historical events; and

  • new ideas or perspectives based on established research findings.

Many of the books published by professional bodies do not report original research findings but report the results of evaluations, or repackage existing information for the benefit of professionals or practitioners. It is important that institutions assess these outputs very carefully against the definition of research and only count those books for this output type which report research activities.

The following types of books are unlikely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Book’ output type:

  • textbooks;

  • anthologies;

  • edited books; and

  • revisions or new editions.

Chapters in Research Book

Institutions are required to submit information on all eligible book chapters for each year of the research outputs reference period.

Eligible book chapters are those that meet all of the following criteria:

  • be a contribution, consisting substantially of new material, to an edited compilation in which the material is subject to editorial scrutiny. A book chapter may be included if it has been published previously, provided it constitutes substantial new knowledge and constitutes original research;

  • be a chapter in a book that is offered for sale in the form of:

    • hard copies, bound,

    • CD-ROMs, packaged, and/or

    • e-books, on subscription or fee basis;

  • be a chapter in a book that has an International Standard Book Number (ISBN); and

  • be a chapter in a book that has been published by a commercial publisher.

A book chapter may be included if it has been published previously as long as it constitutes substantial new knowledge and constitutes original research.

The following types of book chapters are likely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Book Chapter’ output type:

  • scholarly introduction of chapter length to an edited volume, where the content of the introduction reports research and makes a substantial contribution to a defined area of knowledge;

  • critical scholarly text of chapter length; and

  • critical review of current research.

The following types of book chapters are unlikely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Book Chapter’ output type:

  • chapters in textbooks;

  • entries in reference books;

  • anthologies;

  • revisions of chapters in edited books;

  • forewords;

  • brief introductions;

  • brief editorials; and

  • appendices.

Journal Articles-Refereed, Scholarly Journal

Institutions are required to submit information on all eligible journal articles published in so-called ranked journals for each year of the research outputs reference period.

Eligible journal articles are those that meet the following criteria:

  • have been published in one of the 20,712 ranked journals;

  • have been peer reviewed. An acceptable peer review process is one that involves an assessment or review, before publication, of the research output in its entirety by independent, qualified experts. Independent in this context means independent of the author. A statement from an author that a research output was peer reviewed is not sufficient evidence; and

The following types of journal article are likely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Journal Article’ output type:

  • commentaries and communications of original research;

  • research notes;

  • letters to journals, provided that the letter satisfies the definition of research and the subsequent definitions for journal articles provided above;

  • critical scholarly texts which appear in article form;

  • articles reviewing multiple works or an entire field of research;

  • invited papers in journals;

  • articles in journals which are targeted to both scholars and professionals; and

  • articles in a stand alone series.

The following types of journal article are unlikely to meet the eligibility criteria for the ‘Journal Article’ output type:

  • letters to the editor;

  • case studies;

  • articles designed to inform practitioners on existing knowledge in a professional field;

  • articles in newspapers and popular magazines;

  • editorials;

  • book reviews; and

  • brief commentaries and communications of original research.

Indexed and Non-indexed Journal Articles

There are two forms of the research output type ‘journal article’ – indexed and non-indexed.

An ‘indexed journal article’ will have a unique article identifier and will have been indexed by the citation data supplier Scopus. If the field of research will use citation analysis as an indicator, the number of indexed journal articles in an institution’s submission will determine whether the field of research will be assessed, either at the four-digit FoR level or (if relevant) the two-digit FoR level. This low volume threshold is set at 50 indexed journal articles.

For all other fields of research, subject to peer review, this low volume threshold for assessment is set at 30 eligible publications.

Non-indexed journal articles will not contribute to the number of articles that determine whether sufficient volume exists for assessment, whether at the four-digit or two-digit FoR level.

Conference Publications-Full Paper Refereed

Institutions are required to submit information on all eligible peer-reviewed conference publications for each year of the research outputs reference period.

Eligible conference publications are those that meet all of the following criteria:

  • be published in full. The publications may appear in a number of different formats, e.g. a volume of proceedings, a special edition of a journal, a normal issue of a journal, a book or a monograph, CD- or DVD-ROM or conference or organisational website;

  • be peer reviewed. For ERA purposes, an acceptable peer review process is one that involves an assessment or review, before publication, of the research output in its entirety by independent, qualified experts. Independent in this context means independent of the author. A statement from an author that a research output was peer reviewed is not sufficient evidence; and

  • be presented at conferences, workshops or seminars of national or international significance.

The types of conference publications that are unlikely to meet the criteria include

  • Keynote addresses

  • Plenary addresses

  • Participation in discussions as a panel member

  • Poster presentations

  • Facilitation of workshops at conferences

  • Abstracts of conference publications

  • Papers that appear only in a volume handed out to conference participants.

NB: For those disciplines which use ranked conferences as an indicator (i.e. most four-digit Fields within Information and Computing Sciences (08), Engineering (09), Technology (10) and Built Environment and Design (12)), the ARC will use an ERA Conference List, which will include conference title, ERA Conference ID and a quality tier of either A, B, C or Unranked, plus up to three FoRs assigned to each conference. Conferences on this list are referred to as ‘Listed Conferences’.

Eligible conference publications may be submitted irrespective of whether the relevant conference appears on the ERA Conference List.

Non-traditional Output Types: Creative Works

For the most fields within the HCA cluster and research fields in Built Environment & Design, Education, Commerce, Management, Tourism & Services and Anthropology, other eligible research output types include the following creative works (in addition to the four traditional research output types listed above):

  • Original Creative Works

  • Live Performance of Creative Works

  • Recorded / Rendered Creative Works

  • Curated or Produced Substantial Public Exhibitions and Events

For non-traditional research outputs which are selected for ERA peer review (i.e. those outputs that are part of the 20% sample), a 250-word statement identifying the research component of the output must be available in the institutionally-supported repository (that is where it is possible to store the output in ResearchOnline@JCU). [See page 7 of the su mmary of the guidelines for the different subsets of publication types that can be selected for peer review]

Original Creative Works

For Original Creative Works, outputs include paintings, designs, compositions, choreography, plays, or pieces of writing (like novels, book reviews and/or articles in periodicals) that are in the public domain.

The exhibition of an original creative work can be used to demonstrate that the work is in the public domain but each instance of such an output can only be claimed once. That is, multiple exhibitions of the same work cannot be counted as multiple outputs where the repeated showings/performances do not introduce a new research component to the work. However institutions may nominate multiple research outputs that appeared in a single exhibition where each of those outputs meet the research output eligibility criteria.

To accommodate installation-based practices, exhibited creative works can be submitted as either:

  • single items exhibited as individual creative works (equal to one research output); or,

  • a group exhibited as a cohesive/thematic collection of a single creator’s work as a portfolio (also equal to one research output).

Individual works that are derived from the same underlying research endeavour but do not in themselves constitute research should be identified as being related where the portfolio as a whole constitutes research. The portfolio should be able to demonstrate coherent research content. For such works, institutions must identify the relationship using a portfolio name and portfolio number.

Sub-categories of original creative works are provided in the following table:

Research Output

Description

Visual art work

A research output such as as a fine arts and crafts work, a painting, drawing, diagram, map, photographic image, sculpture, model or installation.

Design/Architectural work

Realised, constructed, fabricated or unrealised building and design projects. ‘Unrealised’ projects must have an output that provides evidence of the research involved.

Textual work

Written creative work that is not eligible to be submitted as a book or journal article such as a novel or art review. Also think of case studies; articles designed to inform practitioners on existing knowledge in a professional field; articles in newspapers and popular magazines; editorials; and book reviews. Exhibition catalogues and catalogue entries should be submitted in this sub-category.

Other

Other original creative works that do not fit the other output types.

Live Performance of Creative Works

For live performance research outputs, the actual public performance of the output is what is counted. A recording of the performance must be kept in the institutionally-supported repository as evidence and for peer review, but this can only be counted in recorded work below if the recording has a substantial research component on its own merit, for instance in terms of innovative use of microphones or sound processing.

If these type of research outputs are nominated for peer review then some form of supporting documentation, in addition to the Research Statement for Peer Review of Creative Works, should be made available to facilitate the peer review process. Documentation may be in the form of a recording of the performance, reviews, performance programs or other material that the institution considers useful to the peer review process.

Where possible, reviews of the performance that are in the public domain should also be kept in the repository as evidence of the output, however, these reviews will not be used for ERA peer review.

Sub-categories of live performance of creative works are provided in the following table:

Research Output

Description

Music

New work or a demonstrably new or innovative interpretation or production of an existing work.

Play

New work or a demonstrably new or innovative interpretation or production of an existing work.

Dance

New work or a demonstrably new or innovative interpretation or production of an existing work.

Other

Other new work or a demonstrably new or innovative interpretation or production of an existing work.

Recorded/Rendered Creative Works

For recorded/rendered creative works, the research component is contained within the recording/rendering. Simple documentations of live performances of creative works are not eligible to be submitted as this research output type, but may be submitted as supporting material under Live Performance of Creative Works

Sub-categories of recorded/rendered creative works are provided in the following table:

Research Output

Description

Film/Video

Film or video.

Performance

Performances created specifically for a recorded medium.

Inter-arts

Recorded/rendered creative works, often experimental, produced in association with other researchers in other disciplinary fields.

Digital creative work

Creative 3D models, including digital outputs of architectural and design projects, computer programs, games and visual artworks.

Website/Web exhibition

These are eligible as recorded/rendered creative works if the eligible researcher is the creator of the creative works featured in the website. Curated web-based exhibitions of other people’s creative works must be submitted as Curated or Produced Substantial Public Exhibitions and Events.

Other

Other recorded/rendered creative works not listed above.

Curated or Produced Substantial Public Exhibitions and Events

This research output type is specifically aimed at research outputs produced by curators rather than artists (although exhibition catalogues written by curators should be submitted as Original Creative Works, in the ‘Textual work’ sub-category—see above).

Where a curator is an eligible researcher, the curator may claim exhibitions , festivals and other events as research outputs.

Artists may claim exhibitions of their original creative works under the Original Creative Works research output type, where the exhibition of the creative works is used as evidence that those works have been made publicly available.

Multiple exhibitions/events cannot be counted as multiple research outputs where the repeated exhibitions/events do not introduce a new research component to the work. For example, a touring exhibition can only be counted once. Multiple exhibitions/events may each be counted where each subsequent exhibition/event introduces a new research component to the work that builds upon the initial research component of the original exhibition/event.

Recurring exhibitions and events may be submitted. For example, the Biennale of Sydney is a recurring event with each occurrence being unique rather than a repeat of the previous occurrence.

Sub-categories of Curated or Produced Substantial Public Exhibitions and Events are as follows:

Research Output

Description

Web-based exhibition

The curation and/or production of an internet website presenting a collection of creative works where the internet is the medium of the exhibited works.

Exhibition

The curation and/or production of a collection of creative works exhibited together for the first time in a recognised gallery, museum or event. This should be accompanied by a well researched publication that includes the time and location of the exhibition.

Festival

The curation of a festival bringing together innovative work or existing works in an innovative format or through a theme that provides new perspectives and/or experiences.

Other

Curated or substantial public exhibitions and events that do not fit into the above output types.