An abstract is a concise summary of a scholarly output, such as a research article, thesis, project report, review or conference proceeding. It outlines the content and scope of the research, its purpose and significance, methodology and findings, conclusions and/or intended results. An abstract typically comprises one paragraph of 300 words or less and appears at the beginning of a manuscript, acting as the point-of-entry for the reader.
An action plan documents detailed action steps that must be taken in order to achieve one or more goals. Its purpose is to outline a series of specific tasks, how they will be undertaken, staff responsible for their completion, associated timelines and requisite resources and funding.
An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical listing of the available research on a topic. For each source, there is the citation (i.e., the reference) followed by descriptive and evaluative detail (i.e., the annotation). The annotation provides a summary/synthesis of key themes and findings, and an evaluation of the quality of the source and its relevance and value in terms of the research question. An annotated bibliography may be a component of a larger research project or a stand-alone assignment.
A set of instructions which require a specific written response, including evidence-based recommendations. A creative brief/marketing brief outlines the strategy and goals of a project.
A briefing paper succinctly outlines a particular issue and its background, usually for a committee, policy makers, government officials etc. It recommends improvements and proposes solutions based on evidence and concise argument. A briefing paper may be approximately four pages in length.
A business plan is a written document that describes in detail how a business, usually a new one, is going to achieve its goals. A business plan lays out a written plan from a marketing, financial and operational viewpoint. Sometimes, a business plan is prepared for an established business that is moving in a new direction.
Depending on the disciplinary context, a case note may be: (in law) a summary and analysis of the facts of a legal case, especially to illustrate or debate some aspect of law; (in clinical practice) a record of the condition or treatment of a patient or client receiving medical or health related attention; (in social work) a chronological record of interactions, observations and actions, relating to a particular client.
(in medicine) A case report is a detailed report of the demographic profile, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of an individual patient.
Case study analysis
A case study analysis involves students assessing the details of a realistic and often complex case, in order to try and understand what has happened and why, or to identify the major problems that exist and recommend solutions to these problems.
(in business) A case study is a description of an administrative situation, wherein students may be required to assume the role of the manager and engage in processes that include defining the issue(s), analysing the case data, generating alternative solutions, identifying decision criteria, evaluating alternatives, selecting the preferred solution, and developing an action/implementation plan.
The written presentation of results/performance to a specific audience.
A concept map is a diagram that depicts the most important concepts and relationships relating to a particular focus/topic. The map encloses the concepts in circles or boxes and indicates relationships between them by connecting lines or arrows. Words on the lines/arrows, referred to as linking words or phrases (such as causes, requires, or contributes to) specify the relationship between the concepts. Concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion, typically with the most inclusive/general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific concepts arranged hierarchically below.
A critical appraisal presents findings from a systematic process used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a research article. The most important components of a critical appraisal are an evaluation of the appropriateness of the study design, in relation to the research question, and of the key methodological features of the design, so as to assess the usefulness and validity of the research findings.
A critical review is a type of essay wherein the quality of a research article, an artwork or some other type of work is evaluated.
(of a text) Students may be required to synthesise key themes of the text and evaluate the strength of the author’s arguments, interpretations, and conclusions, based on the evidence presented and with reference to other literature, identifying potential biases and/or limitations in scope.
(of an artwork) Students may be required to assess the quality of the work, identifying flaws/problems with the work, proposing alternative approaches, and/or defending the work against the critiques of others.
Critical incident analysis
Critical incident analysis involves focusing on an event, including analysing the circumstances surrounding it, the actions of those involved, responses to the event and the outcomes. The result should be a better understanding of how practice can be improved.
A dilemma is a situation in which the student must choose between courses of action and no matter what choice of action is taken, some ethical principle will be compromised or transgressed. [Ethical principles are standards that are used by members of a profession or group to determine the right course of action in a situation].
An eBook is a book consisting of text, images, or both, composed in or converted to digital format for display on a computer screen or handheld device. Students may be required to author or co-author an interactive eBook. An interactive eBook may use videos, three-dimensional diagrams, interactive infographics, animation, text mark-ups and/or quizzes.
An ePoster is intended to display information in an innovative way that is not possible with a traditional printed poster. Information is communicated by embedding multimedia content, along with static elements, such as titles, logos, and summaries. Examples of dynamic visual elements include videos, slideshows, animated charts, and graphs, scrolling text and three dimensional rotations of models.
An evidence-based report on written materials/resources needed for effective teaching in different situations and disciplines. It can also involve the development of a new resource or approach.
An essay is a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject, typically comprising an introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction orients the reader to the author’s position or thesis and the essay’s key themes, scope, and organisational structure. In the body of the essay, the author’s argument or response is developed and substantiated by way of logical reasoning and reference to authoritative sources and/or research data. The conclusion provides a synthesis of the position taken and key supporting evidence and may outline implications of the findings, limitations of the essay’s scope and recommendations for future research or practice.
Examination (centrally administered)
An assessment of students’ knowledge, understanding and skills, in a pre-determined, in a restricted time span under invigilated conditions. A centrally administered examination can use any Examination method as listed below and occurs in the official examination period at the end of the study period as published in the Academic calendars
Examination (on course)
An on course examination is an assessment of students’ knowledge, understanding and skills, which is administered by a College.
Online LearnJCU exam This is an online exam run in LearnJCU using the “test” tool. This exam has a single specified start time, a specified duration, and must be completed in a single attempt. Students will answer questions directly in the LearnJCU test response boxes and/or upload files to the LearnJCU test or submission portal/dropbox.
Online Respondus exam This is an online exam run in LearnJCU using the “test” tool and Respondus Lockdown Browser. This exam has a single specified start time, a specified duration, and must be completed in a single attempt. Students will answer questions directly in the LearnJCU test response boxes.
On-campus online Respondus exam This is an online exam run in LearnJCU using the “test” tool and Respondus Lockdown Browser, that is sat on-campus with in-person invigilation. This exam has a single specified start time, a specified duration, and must be completed in a single attempt. Students will answer questions directly in the LearnJCU test response boxes.
Online Respondus exam with Monitor This is an online exam run in LearnJCU using the “test” tool and Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitor. This exam has a single specified start time, a specified duration, and must be completed in a single attempt. Students will answer questions directly in the LearnJCU test response boxes.
Online oral exam This is an online oral exam run in LearnJCU using Collaborate with individual students. This exam has a single specified start time for each student, a specified duration, and must be completed in a single attempt. Students will verbally respond to questions that are posed verbally or in writing.
Field notes are recorded during or after students’ observations of a specific phenomenon during field work. Field notes may also include sketches, diagrams, and other drawings.
A field report consists of a description of what has been seen or observed in the field and an analysis of the observations in light of theoretical frameworks or principles.
(in science) A field report may present the purpose of field experiments, their location, methodologies, results, interpretations and conclusions.
(in social sciences) A field report may present observations of people, places and/or events and analyses of that observation data, in order to identify and categorize common themes, in relation to the research problem or question.
A job application usually includes submission of a cover letter, curriculum vitae/resume and response to selection criteria. A cover letter explains the applicant's credentials and interest in the position. A curriculum vitae outlines the applicant’s education, qualifications, and previous employment history. A selection criteria statement comprises succinct responses to each of the selection criteria i.e. how the applicant possesses the particular knowledge, attributes, qualifications, and experience needed to successfully carry out the job.
A journal is a record of occurrences, experiences and/or reflections kept on a regular basis.
A journal article is written by scholars or professionals, who are experts in their fields, with the purpose of presenting new research or critiquing existing research. It is typically reviewed by independent peers, who evaluate the quality of the scholarship, reliability of findings, relevance to the field and/or appropriateness for the journal.
A laboratory report is written in the format of the traditional scientific report. Depending on the type of laboratory task or scientific research investigation, the sections of the report may vary and include title, abstract, aims and hypotheses, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, references, and appendices.
The creation of an action plan which outlines learning and development activities. It can be applied to any discipline.
The development of a plan which outlines what students/school children/professionals are expected to learn, how the learning will take place, and how that learning will be measured. It can be applied to any discipline.
A letter is a written or printed communication addressed to a person or organisation. A memorandum is a short note designating something to be remembered, especially something to be done or acted upon in the future. Depending on the disciplinary context, a memorandum may be: (in law) a short document outlining the terms of an agreement, especially as a draft leading to a formal, detailed contract; (in diplomacy) a brief, unsigned diplomatic communication, including a summary of the state of an issue and the reasons for decisions agreed upon; (in business) an informal message, especially one sent between two or more employees of the same company, concerning company business.
A literature review is a critical assessment of a body of research, related to a particular research question/focus. All works included in the review are read, evaluated and analysed (as is the case for an annotated bibliography), and relationships between the literature are identified and articulated, with respect to the research question. A literature review may be incorporated into an article, thesis, research report or project report or may be a stand-alone assignment.
A log is an official documentation of activities or events in a systematic record (e.g. daily or hourly basis).
A manual is a small handbook that provides practical instructions on how to implement, do or use something.
A written media article usually requires students to produce non-fiction copy that is well-researched and objective. Media articles can also include press releases, and subjective texts such as advertorials and opinion pieces.
A medication calculation examination requires students to undertake accurate and quick drug calculations, under invigilated conditions.
Minutes are permanent, formal, and detailed (although not a verbatim) record of resolutions adopted or business transacted at an official meeting. Once written up and approved at the next meeting, the minutes are accepted as a true representation of proceedings.
Peer assessment is the evaluation of students' work by other students of equal status, against a predetermined set of criteria.
Peer review is the evaluation of students' work by other students of equal status, against a predetermined set of criteria. Peer review may be undertaken in the context of group assessment. Typically, group members assess the performance of their peers in terms of their contribution to group processes and submitted work.
A research poster summarises research concisely and attractively in order to publicise it and generate discussion. It is usually a combination of text and tables, graphs, pictures and other presentation formats. At a conference, the researcher stands by the poster display while other participants view the poster and interact with the author.
A problem task requires students to engage in processes wherein they identify or respond to a problem, collect relevant information and data, identify the cause, generate possible solutions, appraise the best solution, plan for implementation and, where possible, implement and evaluate.
A project plan presents an overview of the project, its aims and objectives, stakeholders, scheduled activities, resources, timelines and opportunities for dissemination, reflection and evaluation. It may be a plan for a capstone or service learning project.
(in business) A project plan is a formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The key purposes of the project plan are to outline planning assumptions and decisions, facilitate communication among project stakeholders, and document approved scope, cost and schedule baselines.
A project report typically presents an overview of the project, its aims and objectives, activities, outcomes conclusions, reflections, and evaluation.
A research proposal is a concise and coherent summary of a proposed research project. It outlines the central research problem or question with reference to the existing evidence base, significance and limitations, research methodology and anticipated outcomes and impacts.
A research protocol is a predefined, written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments. A protocol is written whenever it is desirable to standardise a laboratory method to ensure successful replication of results by others in the same laboratory or by other laboratories.
A clinical research protocol explains the purpose and function of a clinical study, as well as how to carry it out. It details the reason for the study, the number of participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria, details of the intervention or therapy that the participants will receive (e.g. frequency and dosages), what data will be gathered, steps for clinical caregivers to carry out, and the study endpoints.
A biosafety proposal outlines a formal plan to utilise techniques and equipment in order to maintain safe conditions in research, preventing personal, laboratory and environmental exposure to potentially infectious agents or biohazards.
An ethics proposal provides details relating to a research project, including background and significance, aims, methodology and data collection techniques, data retention and storage, funding sources, roles and expertise of investigators, research participants (e.g., recruitment, consent, confidentiality) and/or use of animals (e.g., housing, care and husbandry).
A grant proposal is a formal document submitted to a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, which proposes a research project and constitutes a request for funding. It outlines details relating to a research project, including aims, significance, methodology, research team, anticipated outcomes and impacts, budgetary requirements, timelines for deliverables and/or evaluation measures.
A reflection or reflective task typically requires students to describe and critically analyse professional experiences or practice, in light of theoretical literature or available evidence, with a view to enhancement of future practice.
A research report is a structured document designed so readers are able to readily extract information about the aims and significance, methodology, findings, and conclusions of a research project. It describes the research methodology in sufficient detail for it to be verified by others and presents the research questions, interpretations of results, conclusions, and recommendations, in the context of related work in the field.
Self-assessment or self-reflection can serve as a powerful meta-cognitive tool. It engages students in the learning process, developing their capacity to critically evaluate their own work, against a predetermined set of criteria.
A technical report is used in industry to communicate technical information and research about technical concepts, as well as graphical depictions of designs and data. This information assists in decision making (e.g. in the purchase of equipment or finding solutions to technical problems). An important consideration when preparing technical reports is the audience and purpose of the report (e.g. to brief managers or to provide technical background information for lay people associated with the project). These factors determine the degree of technicality of the language and concepts involved. At university, technical report writing is frequently used in faculties of engineering and in the applied sciences.
A short test or quiz taken face-to-face or online. It can have yes/no answers, true/false questions, multiple choice, extended matching questions, key feature questions, problems/computational questions, and short or long (extended) answer questions.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification, presenting the research purpose and significance, review of the literature, research methodology, results, discussion and conclusion.
A tutorial preparation task requires students to undertake some orienting/preliminary activities, in order to most effectively engage in the active, hands-on, peer-to-peer and independent learning opportunities, within the tutorial program.
A workbook may contain exercises, problems, and practice material to clarify and reinforce knowledge and skills within a subject of study.