College of Science and Engineering CSE publications Recent publications in Earth and Environmental Sciences

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Recent publications in Earth and Environmental Sciences

Moynier, Frédéric, Merland, Ariane, Rigoussen, Dimitri, Moureau, Julien, Paquet, Marine, Mahan, Brandon, and LeBorgne, Marie (2022) Baseline distribution of stable copper isotope compositions of the brain and other organs in mice. Metallomics, 14 (5). mfac017.
Copper (Cu) stable isotopes are useful for understanding pathways and tracing changes in Cu homeostasis, such as those induced by various diseases (e.g. liver cirrhosis, numerous forms of cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases). However, this utility relies on a baseline understanding of the natural distribution of Cu isotopes between organs of healthy organisms, which is not well-known at present. Here, the distribution of natural Cu isotopes in the brain, liver, red blood cells, plasma, kidneys, and muscle of 14 mice (7 males and 7 females) from three different genetic backgrounds is assessed. We show that the Cu isotopic composition of most mouse organs is isotopically distinct from one another. The most striking feature is the heavy isotope enrichment of the kidney (δ65Cu = 1.65 ± 0.06‰, 2SE), brain (δ65Cu = 0.87 ± 0.03‰, 2SE) and liver (δ65Cu = 0.71 ± 0.24‰, 2SE) compared to blood components, i.e. red blood cells (RBCs) (δ65Cu = 0.30 ± 0.06‰, 2SE), and plasma (δ65Cu = –0.61 ± 0.08‰, 2SE), with δ65Cu being the per mil deviation of the 65Cu/63Cu ratio from the NIST SRM 976 standard. Differences in genetic background do not appear to affect the isotopic distribution of Cu. Interestingly, male and female mice appear to have different Cu concentrations and isotopic compositions in their brain, plasma, muscle, and RBC. By demonstrating that organs have distinct isotopic compositions, our study reinforces the notion that Cu stable isotopes can be used to trace changes in homeostasis in diseases affecting Cu distribution, such as Alzheimer's disease, liver cancer, and possible chronic kidney failure.

Po, Sovinda, and Sims, Kearrin (2022) The myth of non-interference: Chinese foreign policy in Cambodia. Asian Studies Review, 46 (1). pp. 36-54.
The discourse of “non-interference” features prominently in China’s so-called “peaceful rise” and “win – win” approach to international diplomacy. This article contests Beijing’s non-interference rhetoric through a case-study analysis of Cambodia. We make two core arguments: first, interference by foreign powers is not limited to actions that challenge a regime’s leadership, but can also include the reinforcement of regimes that lack popular support. Second, Beijing’s “non-interference” rhetoric is not demonstrated in the context of Cambodia, where it has repeatedly interfered to reinforce Prime Minister Hun Sen’s leadership during times of political contestation. To make these arguments, the article offers a historical summary of Chinese interference in Cambodia followed by an analysis of the key domains in which Hun Sen’s regime supports Chinese geostrategic interests. These are: support for Beijing’s One China Policy and its Belt and Road Initiative; support for Beijing in negotiations with ASEAN; and support for Chinese economic interests. Collectively, we argue that these domains contribute to the advancement of China’s “core national interest”, and it is therefore a myth to suggest that China has not interfered in Cambodia’s domestic politics.

Rehn, Emma, Rowe, Cassandra, Ulm, Sean, Woodward, Craig, Zawadzki, Atun, Jacobsen, Geraldine, and Bird, Michael I. (2022) Integrating charcoal morphology and stable carbon isotope analysis to identify non-grass elongate charcoal in tropical savannas. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 31 (1). pp. 37-48.
Fire is inextricably linked to the vegetation that provides the fuel load. For palaeofire records to contribute meaningfully to the reconstruction of past landscape fire history, it is helpful to identify the vegetation that has been burnt, for example, grassy versus woody vegetation in tropical savannas. The morphological characteristics of charcoal particles can provide useful information on source vegetation type, and the aspect ratio of charcoal particles has been proposed to identify the contribution of grasses to environmental records. Stable carbon isotope analysis of pyrogenic carbon can also chemically identify the proportion of C3 and C4 biomass in charcoal samples but has yet to be widely applied alongside charcoal morphological analysis. Using carbon isotope analysis we demonstrate that C3 sedges contribute elongate charcoal to a fire record where C4 grasses are absent. These results challenge the widespread assumption that elongate charcoal is primarily or exclusively derived from grass, as most experimental studies demonstrating this relationship were conducted in environments where graminoids (grass-like forms) did not significantly contribute to available fuels. In turn, this complicates the simple interpretation of elongate aspect ratios for charcoal in fire records as direct proxies for the proportion of grasses in an environment, beyond differentiating temperate forests from grasslands. Minimal work to date has been done on separating charcoal derived from different graminoid types and future studies would benefit from the ability to differentiate graminoids including Poaceae and Cyperaceae in fire records. These results highlight the benefits of a multi-proxy approach to the interpretation of fire records in tropical savannas.

Kophamel, Sara, Illing, Björn, Ariel, Ellen, Difalco, Morgan, Skerratt, Lee F., Hamann, Mark, Ward, Leigh C., Méndez, Diana, and Munns, Suzanne L. (2022) Importance of health assessments for conservation in noncaptive wildlife. Conservation Biology, 36 (1). e13724.
Wildlife health assessments help identify populations at risk of starvation, disease, and decline from anthropogenic impacts on natural habitats. We conducted an overview of available health assessment studies in noncaptive vertebrates and devised a framework to strategically integrate health assessments in population monitoring. Using a systematic approach, we performed a thorough assessment of studies examining multiple health parameters of noncaptive vertebrate species from 1982 to 2020 (n = 261 studies). We quantified trends in study design and diagnostic methods across taxa with generalized linear models, bibliometric analyses, and visual representations of study location versus biodiversity hotspots. Only 35% of studies involved international or cross‐border collaboration. Countries with both high and threatened biodiversity were greatly underrepresented. Species that were not listed as threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List represented 49% of assessed species, a trend likely associated with the regional focus of most studies. We strongly suggest following wildlife health assessment protocols when planning a study and using statistically adequate sample sizes for studies establishing reference ranges. Across all taxa blood analysis (89%), body composition assessments (81%), physical examination (72%), and fecal analyses (24% of studies) were the most common methods. A conceptual framework to improve design and standardize wildlife health assessments includes guidelines on the experimental design, data acquisition and analysis, and species conservation planning and management implications. Integrating a physiological and ecological understanding of species resilience toward threatening processes will enable informed decision making regarding the conservation of threatened species.

Le, T.X., Dirks, P.H.G.M., Sanislav, I.V., Harris, C., Huizenga, J.M., McCoy-West, H.A., and Manestar, G.N. (2022) Quartz oxygen isotopes from Tick Hill area in Mount Isa Inlier: indication of a regional fluid overprint. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 69 (3). pp. 439-452.
At the Tick Hill gold deposit, δ18Oquartz data for the mineralised lithologies and surrounding rocks are similar and fall within a narrow range of 10.5–13.7‰ V-SMOW. The highly mineralised quartzo-feldspathic mylonite has quartz δ18O (δ18Oquartz) values of 11.3–13.6‰, which are similar to values for the surrounding rocks both locally and regionally, i.e. δ18Oquartz by itself does not provide a useful exploration tool. The δ18Oquartz values from the Tick Hill area most likely reflect the late Isan hydrothermal overprint at 1525–1520 Ma. The origin of the altering fluids is unclear, as the δ18Oquartz values overlap with reported δ18O values calculated for both metamorphic and igneous fluids. When combining the δ18Oquartz results with δ18Ocalcite results available from the literature, a temperature of 350–550 °C was calculated, which is consistent with observed alteration assemblages associated with gold mineralisation.

McCoy-West, A.J., Mortimer, N., Burton, K.W., Ireland, T.R., and Cawood, P.A. (2022) Re-initiation of plutonism at the Gondwana margin after a magmatic hiatus: the bimodal Permian-Triassic Longwood Suite, New Zealand. Gondwana Research, 105. pp. 432-449.
The Cambrian to Cretaceous Tuhua Intrusives, New Zealand, preserve an igneous record of Phanerozoic subduction and crustal growth at the margin of Gondwana. Within the Tuhua Intrusives, the coeval gabbroic and trondhjemitic intrusions of the c. 261-243 Ma Longwood Suite stand out as being isotopically more primitive and chemically distinct from all other New Zealand plutonic suites. We present new U-Pb crystallization ages, trace element analyses and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the Longwood Suite. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages of 258.5 ± 2.5 Ma, 256.0 ± 1.8 Ma, 247.8 ± 2.7 Ma and 243.2 ± 2.4 Ma obtained from plutons on Ruapuke Island, and a dike at Bluff, affirm the restricted time range and expand the known areal extent of the Longwood Suite. Longwood Suite granitoids are I-type and sodic (K/Na < 0.4), with distinctive low Rb and Nb/Ta, flat rare earth element patterns (La/YbN < 10), unradiogenic 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.7029 to 0.7032) and radiogenic ε143Nd(t) (+6.3 to +8.2), compared to the nearby, calc-alkaline, Late Triassic Darran Suite I-type plutons of the Tuhua Intrusives. Stable Nd isotope ratios of Longwood Suite samples are highly variable (δ146/144Nd = 233 ppm) compared to global plutonic rocks (δ146/144Nd = 44 ppm) and reflect the removal of phosphate minerals. Collectively, these geochemical characteristics are consistent with generation of the granitoids by shallow (garnet-absent) melting of an amphibolitic residue, from which we infer relatively thin lithosphere. The Longwood Suite has a maximum areal addition rate of 43 km2/Ma, substantially less than the subsequent plutonic suites when the magmatic arc was fully established. We suggest a petrotectonic model whereby Gondwana continental margin crust was tectonically underplated by Permian intra-oceanic island arc crust and mantle lithosphere, which subsequently melted to generate the isotopically primitive gabbro and trondhjemite plutons of the Longwood Suite.

Bird, Michael I., Haig, Jordahna, Ulm, Sean, and Wurster, Christopher (2022) A carbon and nitrogen isotope perspective on ancient human diet in the British Isles. Journal of Archaeological Science, 137. 105516.
The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope composition of human bone collagen is increasingly used to investigate past mobility and subsistence strategies. This study presents a compilation of 1298 carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of archaeological human bone collagen from the British Isles spanning much of the Holocene, along with a compilation of 4148 analyses of modern and ancient isotope analyses from the major marine and terrestrial dietary resources from the same region. We convert ancient human stable isotope data to modern diet equivalent (MDE) values for humans, and convert the isotope composition of ancient dietary items to modern tissue equivalent (MTE) isotope values. These conversions enable a direct comparison of ancient and modern datasets. Results for food groups (plants, grain, herbivores, omnivores, shellfish, freshwater fish and marine fish) show a remarkably broad range of δ13CMTE values from ∼-36 to −7‰ and δ15NMTE values from ∼-2 to +21‰ and we provide estimates for each food type that can be used in dietary reconstruction in the absence of site-specific data. We further show that there is no significant change in terrestrial stable isotope baseline values over the Holocene, with observed variability in baseline values due to local eco-physiological, edaphic and microclimatic factors. The range of values expressed in the human sample set from the beginning of the Iron Age is relatively tightly clustered with 50% of all human modern diet equivalent results falling within a ∼2‰ range in δ13CMDE values (−25.5 to −27.5‰) and a ∼3.5‰ range in δ15NMDE values from (+4‰ to +8‰). From the Iron Age to post-medieval times there is a consistent progressive shift to higher δ13CMDE and δ15NMDE values at the population level. This shift likely reflects a combination of successive innovations associated with food production, preservation and transport that enabled a broader cross-section of the population of the British Isles to incorporate a higher proportion of animal, and particularly marine protein, into their diets.

Spence, Joshua S., Sanislav, Ioan V., and Dirks, Paul H.G.M. (2022) Evidence for a 1750–1710 Ma orogenic event, the Wonga Orogeny, in the Mount Isa Inlier, Australia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the North Australian Craton and Nuna Supercontinent. Precambrian Research, 369. 106510.
In this contribution we propose that Mount Isa Inlier was affected by a new orogeny, the Wonga Orogeny, which occurred between 1750 and 1710 Ma. Evidence for this event is principally given by structural field data and geochronology from this study and that documented in Spence et al. (2021). In this study, field relationships and geochronology within the Duchess Belt of the Mary Kathleen Domain reveals two main deformation events during the Wonga Orogeny, here D1 and D2. The former produced predominantly upright, tight, east–west trending folds whereas the latter produced upright to overturned, north–south trending folds. D1 can be constrained between 1741 ± 6 Ma to 1736 ± 3 Ma, based on the U-Pb magmatic zircon ages of the Revenue granite which intrudes prior to or early during D1 and the intrusion of the Overlander granite which has not been affected by D1. The age of the D2 event can be constrained between 1736 ± 3 Ma and 1722 ± 7 Ma based on the U-Pb magmatic zircon ages of the Overlander granite which intrudes prior to or early during D2 and the Myubee granite which intrudes syn-D2 – within the fold hinge of an F2 anticline. These timing relationships coupled with F2 folds associated with mineral lineations (L2) defined by biotite and hornblende, as well as syn-D2garnet, kyanite and sillimanite porphyroblasts suggest that amphibolite-facies metamorphism, deformation and contemporaneous magmatism defined by the Wonga and Burstall Suite magma’s all occurred between 1750 and 1710 Ma. These characteristics typically define orogenesis and is here, accordingly proposed as a third orogenic event within the Mount Isa Inlier. These findings have implications on the tectonic evolution of the North Australian Craton and Nuna Supercontinent.

Ribeiro, Bruno V., Finch, Melanie A., Cawood, Peter A., Faleiros, Frederico M., Murphy, Timothy D., Simpson, Alexander, Glorie, Stijn, Tedeschi, Mahyra, Armit, Robin, and Barrote, Vitor R. (2022) From microanalysis to supercontinents: insights from the Rio Apa Terrane into the Mesoproterozoic SW Amazonian Craton evolution during Rodinia assembly. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. (In Press)
Deciphering the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Precambrian terranes can be difficult due to reworking by later superimposed events. Whole-rock elemental and isotopic geochemistry and zircon U–Pb geochronology are often employed in those studies, but these approaches are often not sensitive to the presence of multiple events and medium-grade metamorphic episodes. The Rio Apa Terrane (RAT), an allochthonous fragment of the Amazonian Craton, is a crustal block with a well-characterized crustal evolution but with no detailed thermal constraints for its tectono-metamorphic evolution. In contrast to previous studies, we show the existence of four tectono-metamorphic events at c. 1,780, c. 1,625, c. 1,420–1,340, and c. 1,300–1,200 Ma on the basis of apatite, titanite, and rutile U–Pb, in situ white-mica Rb–Sr, and in situ garnet Lu–Hf geochronology combined with mineral chemistry and phase-equilibria modelling. The c. 1,780 Ma event is recorded in the basement of the Western domain, representing an extensional event coeval with the development of its Eastern domain in response to the retreat stage of the accretionary system. This is followed by juxtaposition of the Western and Eastern domains along a major crustal boundary at c. 1,625 Ma, which is defined by the magnetic profiles and zircon U–Pb–Hf data across the boundary. The third and fourth events correspond to progressive high-pressure/medium-temperature (HP/MT) metamorphism, characterized by an anticlockwise P–T path, suggesting a convergent-to-collisional tectonic setting. The RAT was accreted to the adjoining Paraguá Terrane at c. 1,420–1,340 Ma under an isobaric P–T evolution spanning ~530°C to 600°C and ~10.0 kbar. Subsequently, the combined Rio Apa and Paraguá terranes collided with the SW Amazonian Craton at c. 1,300–1,200 Ma, reaching P–T conditions of ~560–580°C and ~10.9–11.7 kbar during crustal thickening. This study reveals for the first time the existence of a HP/MT metamorphic evolution related to the growth of the SW Amazonian Craton as part of an accretionary orogenic system during Rodinia assembly in the Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic.

Reckermann, Marcus, Omstedt, Anders, Soomere, Tarmo, Aigars, Juris, Akhtar, Naveed, Bełdowska, Magdalena, Bełdowski, Jacek, Cronin, Tom, Czub, Michał, Eero, Margit, Hyytiäinen, Kari Petri, Jalkanen, Jukka Pekka, Kiessling, Anders, Kjellström, Erik, Kuliński, Karol, Larsén, Xiaoli Guo, McCrackin, Michelle, Meier, H.E.Markus, Oberbeckmann, Sonja, Parnell, Kevin, Pons-Seres De Brauwer, Cristian, Poska, Anneli, Saarinen, Jarkko, Szymczycha, Beata, Undeman, Emma, Wörman, Anders, and Zorita, Eduardo (2022) Human impacts and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region. Earth System Dynamics, 13 (1).
Coastal environments, in particular heavily populated semi-enclosed marginal seas and coasts like the Baltic Sea region, are strongly affected by human activities. A multitude of human impacts, including climate change, affect the different compartments of the environment, and these effects interact with each other. As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region, and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities (i.e. climate change, coastal processes, hypoxia, acidification, submarine groundwater discharges, marine ecosystems, non-indigenous species, land use and land cover), some are completely human-induced (i.e. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries, river regulations, offshore wind farms, shipping, chemical contamination, dumped warfare agents, marine litter and microplastics, tourism, and coastal management), and they are all interrelated to different degrees. We present a general description and analysis of the state of knowledge on these interrelations. Our main insight is that climate change has an overarching, integrating impact on all of the other factors and can be interpreted as a background effect, which has different implications for the other factors. Impacts on the environment and the human sphere can be roughly allocated to anthropogenic drivers such as food production, energy production, transport, industry and economy. The findings from this inventory of available information and analysis of the different factors and their interactions in the Baltic Sea region can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.

Foley, Elliot K., Roberts, Eric M., and Knutsen, Espen M. (2022) Deciphering Late Cretaceous palaeo-river catchments in eastern Australia: recognition of distinct northern and southern drainage basins. Basin Research, 34 (2). pp. 590-617.
During the Early Cretaceous, Australia was flooded by the epicontinental Eromanga Sea, deposits of which occur across the Great Australian Superbasin. However, the mid-Cretaceous retreat of this shallow sea, and the resultant palaeogeographic and sediment distribution patterns, are poorly understood. This study chronicles the Eromanga Sea's northward regression through the Carpentaria Basin as captured in the sedimentary record of the Normanton Formation. We achieve this by integrating sedimentary facies analysis of cores from across the Carpentaria Basin with palynology, sandstone petrography and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology. Results indicate that the Normanton Formation was deposited between ca. 100 and 96 Ma, and that it represents a large, northward-prograding, likely river-dominated delta system. The unit's volcanoclastic nature is exhibited through abundant lithic volcanics and devitrified glass, with a prominent, near-depositional detrital zircon population attributed to a proximal continental magmatic arc-derived source hypothesised to parallel the eastern seaboard of Australia at this time. The Normanton Formation is temporally correlative with the lower-middle portions of the similarly volcanoclastic Winton Formation in the Eromanga Basin, which drained southwards into the Cenomanian-Santonian Ceduna River Delta system. However, Normanton Formation strata display subtly different provenance signatures and drainage patterns, indicating input from similar, but likely more northern source terrains than much of the contemporaneous Winton Formation. These sediments were unlikely recycled southwards into the Ceduna Delta like those of the Winton Formation; rather they drained northward following the retreat of the Eromanga Sea through the Carpentaria Basin, indicating a Cretaceous drainage divide between two river systems, with distinct northern and southern drainage catchments. The mid-Cretaceous palaeogeography of eastern Australia is analogous to that of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America, in which the retreat of a shallow epicontinental sea is marked by the rapid deposition and progradation of multiple large, geographically distinct clastic wedges.

Dai, Zuo-Wen, Li, Guang-Ming, Xie, Yu-Ling, Yang, Zhi-Ming, Huizenga, Jan Marten, Liang, Wei, Fu, Jian-Gang, and Cao, Hua-Wen (2022) Source and evolution of the ore-forming fluid of the Cuonadong Sn-W-Be polymetallic deposit (southern Tibet, China): constraints from scheelite trace element and Sr isotope geochemistry. Ore Geology Reviews, 142. 104570.
The Cuonadong Sn-W-Be polymetallic deposit is the first rare-metal deposit with an extraordinary metallogenic potential that has been discovered in the Tethyan Himalayan metallogenic belt. The deposit shows a wide range of different mineralization types, including greisen-, pegmatite-, skarn-, and hydrothermal vein-type mineralization. Of these mineralization types, the skarn-type has the largest inferred resources. In order to constrain the source and evolution of the ore-forming fluid, we conducted a detailed study of the skarn-hosted scheelite, including cathodoluminescence imaging, in-situ trace elemental analysis, and bulk Sr isotope analysis. In addition, bulk Sr isotope analysis of fluorite, phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar dating, and marble whole-rock geochemical analysis were also conducted. Phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates that the skarn was formed at ca. 15 Ma, which is close to the formation age of the Cuonadong muscovite granite reported in previous studies. Cathodoluminescence images indicate that skarn-hosted scheelite can be subdivided into an older type 1 scheelite and a younger type 2 scheelite. Type 1 scheelite is characterized by a negative Eu anomaly, whereas type 2 scheelite shows a positive Eu anomaly. Considering the close temporal and spatial relationship between the Cuonadong Miocene leucogranite and the ore-bearing skarn, and their similar lanthanide tetrad effect as observed in the REE patterns, we propose that the negative Eu anomaly was inherited from the Cuonadong Miocene leucogranite, while the positive Eu anomaly resulted from the addition of Eu2+ to the ore-forming fluid during greisenization. Sr isotope data show that the fluorite (87Sr/86Sr)i value of 0.728885 is within the range of the Cuonadong Miocene leucogranite (87Sr/86Sr)i values, while scheelite (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.709717–0.713480) are similar to those of the Cuonadong marble (0.709525–0.712146). Since scheelite is intergrown with fluorite, we propose that the hydrothermal fluid that exsolved from the Cuonadong Miocene leucogranite is responsible for formation of both fluorite and scheelite. Water-rock interaction between this magma-derived fluid and the marble is responsible for the loss of the scheelite magmatic Sr isotopic signature.

Shen, Yang, Zheng, Yuan-Chuan, Hou, Zeng-Qian, Huizenga, Jan, Zhang, Ai-Ping, Wang, Zi-Xuan, Li, Xin, Xu, Pei-Yan, Wu, Chang-Da, and Liu, Si-Qi (2022) Pre-Late Eocene position of the Lüchun-Jinping microblock in western Yangtze Craton: constraints from Eocene-Oligocene lamprophyres in southeastern Tibet. Lithos, 414-415. 106622.
The tectono-magmatic history of the Lüchun-Jinping microblock and its possible affinity with the Yangtze Craton are important elements for the reconstruction of Cenozoic plate tectonics in southeastern Tibet. In order to constrain the affinity and decipher the pre-Cenozoic paleopositon of the Lüchun-Jinping microblock, we focused on the petrogenesis of Eocene-Oligocene lamprophyres in the Lüchun-Jinping microblock. The lamprophyres yield zircon Usingle bondPb ages of 34.7–33.3 Ma and exhibit potassic-ultrapotassic features with elevated K2O/Na2O (1.4–4.0) ratios. They are characterized by high concentrations of compatible elements (e.g., Cr = 187–692 ppm, Ni = 31–218 ppm), large-ion-lithophile elements and light rare-earth elements enrichment, high-field-strength elements depletion, and high radiogenic isotopic values, i.e. (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7063–0.7078 and εNd(t) = −3.9 to −2.4. Combined with the low Nb/U ratios, these features suggest that the lithospheric mantle source was metasomatized by subduction-related fluids beneath the Lüchun-Jinping microblock. The relatively high Rb/Sr ratios and high heavy rare-earth element contents indicate that these lamprophyres were derived from partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing lherzolite within the spinel stability field. The parental magmas have experienced fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene during emplacement. Comprehensive comparisons between the lamprophyres from the Lüchun-Jinping microblock and the potassic-ultrapotassic mafic rocks from the western Yangtze Craton indicate that the Lüchun-Jinping microblock can be regarded as a dismembered part of the western Yangtze Craton due to continental extrusion and Cenozoic sinistral displacement. The compositional trends of the potassic-ultrapotassic mafic rocks suggest that the palaeogeographic position of the Lüchun-Jinping microblock was near the Dali area (west of the Binchuan) and close to the Jinshajiang suture zone before the Cenozoic.

Hinestrosa, Gustavo, Webster, Jody M., and Beaman, Robin J. (2022) New constraints on the postglacial shallow-water carbonate accumulation in the Great Barrier Reef. Scientific Reports, 12 (1). 924.
More accurate global volumetric estimations of shallow-water reef deposits are needed to better inform climate and carbon cycle models. Using recently acquired datasets and International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 325 cores, we calculated shallow-water CaCO3 volumetrics and mass for the Great Barrier Reef region and extrapolated these results globally. In our estimates, we include deposits that have been neglected in global carbonate budgets: Holocene Halimeda bioherms located on the shelf, and postglacial pre-Holocene (now) drowned coral reefs located on the shelf edge. Our results show that in the Great Barrier Reef alone, these drowned reef deposits represent ca. 135 Gt CaCO3, comparatively representing 16-20% of the younger Holocene reef deposits. Globally, under plausible assumptions, we estimate the presence of ca. 8100 Gt CaCO3 of Holocene reef deposits, ca. 1500 Gt CaCO3 of drowned reef deposits and ca. 590 Gt CaCO3 of Halimeda shelf bioherms. Significantly, we found that in our scenarios the periods of pronounced reefal mass accumulation broadly encompass the occurrence of the Younger Dryas and periods of CO2 surge (14.9-14.4 ka, 13.0-11.5 ka) observed in Antarctic ice cores. Our estimations are consistent with reef accretion episodes inferred from previous global carbon cycle models and with the chronology from reef cores from the shelf edge of the Great Barrier Reef.

Todd, Christopher, Roberts, Eric, and Charles, Adam (2022) A revised Permian-Triassic stratigraphic framework for the north-eastern Galilee Basin, Queensland, Australia, and definition of a new Middle-Upper Triassic sedimentary unit. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 69 (1). pp. 113-134.
The upper Paleozoic–lower Mesozoic strata in the northeastern Galilee Basin are important for their hydrocarbon and groundwater potential; however, despite numerous previous investigations, the nature of this stratigraphic interval remains enigmatic. This study integrates lithostratigraphy, palynology and U–Pb zircon geochronology of well-exposed Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks and nearby stratigraphic cores from the Hughenden district to determine their maximum depositional ages and then revises the stratigraphy where necessary. The newly defined Galah Tuff Bed was discovered at the top of the Betts Creek beds in Porcupine Gorge and was dated at 251.9 ± 3 Ma. This provides an important age constraint for the Betts Creek beds and is a tie-point for correlations with coeval units in the adjacent Bowen Basin and the Sydney and Gunnedah basins to the southeast. The Galah Tuff Bed is interpreted to correlate with the Yarrabee Tuff in the Bowen Basin. Unconformably overlying the Betts Creek beds is a newly recognised stratigraphic unit, defined herein as the Porcupine Gorge Formation. Detrital zircon maximum depositional ages and palynology indicate a significant depositional hiatus of up to 20 million years between the Betts Creek beds and Porcupine Gorge Formation. The hiatus indicates that the lower part of the Porcupine Gorge Formation is at least upper Middle Triassic, whereas the upper part of the unit extends into the Late Triassic. This age also constrains the overlying Warang Sandstone, which is considerably younger locally than previously reported and is likely diachronous across the northeastern Galilee Basin.

Jog, Ketki, Sutaria, Dipani, Diedrich, Amy, Grech, Alana, and Marsh, Helene (2022) Marine Mammal Interactions With Fisheries: Review of Research and Management Trends Across Commercial and Small-Scale Fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9. 758013.
Marine mammal interactions with fisheries, such as bycatch and depredation, are a common occurrence across commercial and small-scale fisheries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the management responses to marine mammal interactions with fisheries. We analyzed literature between 1995 and 2021 to measure research trends in studies on direct and indirect interactions for: (i) high and low to middle-income countries, (ii) fishery operations (commercial and small-scale), and (iii) taxonomic groups. Management responses were categorized using the framework described previously in peer-reviewed studies. Marine mammal bycatch remains a major conservation concern, followed by marine mammal depredation of fishing gear. A high proportion of studies concentrated on commercial fisheries in high-income countries, with an increase in small-scale fisheries in low to middle-income countries between 1999 and 2020. The insufficient understanding of the social dimensions of interactions and the inevitable uncertainties concerning animal and human behaviors are major challenges to effective management. Despite the key role of human behavior and socioeconomics, we found only eight articles that incorporate human dimensions in the management context. Integrating social dimensions of marine mammal interactions with fisheries could help in setting pragmatic conservation priorities based on enhanced understanding of critical knowledge gaps. An area-specific adaptive management framework could be an effective tool in reducing the risk to marine mammals from fisheries by coupling technical solutions with socio-economic and political interventions. We conclude that despite the vast body of literature on this subject, a “silver bullet” management solution to marine mammal interactions with fisheries does not yet exist.

Safarova, S., van Hoof, J, Law, L., Zander, K.K., and Garnett, S.T. (2022) Thermal comfort in a tropical savanna climate: The case of home occupants in Darwin, Australia. Energy and Buildings, 266. 112074.
Housing construction and operating costs can be reduced if building codes are designed to meet local expectations of thermal comfort ─ expectations that can vary across cultures and climates. We analysed the energy and thermal comfort performance of 38 recently-built houses in the tropical savanna (Aw) climate of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia with 4 to 7 star ratings according to the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS). Thermal comfort and personal adaptive behaviours of the 69 occupants were assessed using a questionnaire while, simultaneously, indoor environmental parameters were monitored. Perceptions of thermal comfort were then compared to those predicted from modelling. We found that many people were comfortable in warmer and more humid conditions than is assumed by national building codes, with many people opting for use of fans at set at high speeds instead. Large lots close to parks had the lowest use of air conditioners in the warm seasons, with very little air-conditioner use at other times

Dadpour, Rana, and Law, Lisa (2022) Understanding the ‘region’ in COVID-19-induced regional migration: mapping Cairns across classification systems. Australian Geographer. (In Press)
This paper unpacks the notion of ‘region’ in the current COVID-19 migration debate to understand how the city of Cairns, Queensland fits into a wider geography of internal urban-rural migration in Australia. It unpacks different constructions of ‘region’, showing how they often articulate ‘access’, ‘rural’ and ‘remote’ and a general sense of non-urban entities. We discuss the imagined geographies of different Australian regional classification systems such as the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) and Modified Monash Model (MMM). We show how definitions and classifications of ‘region’ are constructed in particular ways to address political and social issues such as economic development, health, immigration and wider policy-making agendas. The analysis deployed develops a framework for understanding key dimensions of regionality relevant to migration to Cairns in the COVID-19 moment. A critical interpretive analysis helps shed light on the importance of place/context in relation to Australia’s recent urban--rural internal migration debate, but also provides insights to the counter-urbanisation debate in terms of displacing notions of the ‘rural idyll’.

Cernusak, Lucas A., Barbeta, Adria, Bush, Rosemary T., Eichstaedt (Bogelein), Rebekka, Pedro Ferrio, Juan, Flanagan, Lawrence B., Gessler, Arthur, Martin-Gomez, Paula, Hirl, Regina T., Kahmen, Ansgar, Keitel, Claudia, Lai, Chun-Ta, Munksgaard, Niels C., Nelson, Daniel B., Ogee, Jerome, Roden, John S., Schnyder, Hans, Voelker, Steven L., Wang, Lixin, Stuart-Williams, Hilary, Wingate, Lisa, Yu, Wusheng, Zhao, Liangju, and Cuntz, Matthias (2022) Do 2H and 18O in leaf water reflect environmental drivers differently? New Phytologist, 235. pp. 41-51.
We compiled hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope compositions (δ2H and δ18O) of leaf water from multiple biomes to examine variations with environmental drivers. Leaf water δ2H was more closely correlated with δ2H of xylem water or atmospheric vapour, whereas leaf water δ18O was more closely correlated with air relative humidity. This resulted from the larger proportional range for δ2H of meteoric waters relative to the extent of leaf water evaporative enrichment compared with δ18O. We next expressed leaf water as isotopic enrichment above xylem water (Δ2H and Δ18O) to remove the impact of xylem water isotopic variation. For Δ2H, leaf water still correlated with atmospheric vapour, whereas Δ18O showed no such correlation. This was explained by covariance between air relative humidity and the Δ18O of atmospheric vapour. This is consistent with a previously observed diurnal correlation between air relative humidity and the deuterium excess of atmospheric vapour across a range of ecosystems. We conclude that 2H and 18O in leaf water do indeed reflect the balance of environmental drivers differently; our results have implications for understanding isotopic effects associated with water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and for inferring environmental change from isotopic biomarkers that act as proxies for leaf water.

Zhao, Xu, Li, Ning-Bo, Huizenga, Jan, Zhang, Qi-Bing, Yang, Yu-Yuan, Yan, Shuang, Yang, Wu-bin, and Niu, He-Cai (2022) Granitic magma evolution to magmatic-hydrothermal processes vital to the generation of HREEs ion-adsorption deposits: Constraints from zircon texture, U-Pb geochronology, and geochemistry. Ore Geology Reviews, 146. 104931.
The key point for further prospecting of heavy rare earth elements (HREE) ion-adsorption deposit is to figure out the granites that could generate HREE ion-adsorption mineralization in weathering processes. In this study, we present a detailed study of zircons from granites associated with Zudong, Dabu, and Xinfeng HREE ion-adsorption deposits in South China. The zircons were studied with regards to their texture, crystallinity, U-Pb dating, and geochemistry. The zircons from these granites all can be subdivided into two types. The type-1 zircons show oscillatory zonation and have Th/U and Zr/Hf mass ratios of 0.4–1.0 and 30–50, respectively. These textural and geochemical features indicate crystallization in a fractionated magma. The type-2 zircons are unzoned, occasionally porous, and have a low crystallinity. They occasionally rim type-1 zircons. The type-2 zircons show significantly higher F, P, Hf, Th, U, and REE contents, but display lower ZrO2 and SiO2 contents and lower Th/U, Zr/Hf, La/Yb ratios than those of the type-1 zircons. These geochemical features are consistent with zircon formation in a volatile-HREE-rich magmatic-hydrothermal transition stage. Under these conditions, the HREEs were also hosted in volatile-rich REE mineral phases including synchysite-(Y), aeschynite-(Y), calcybeborosilite-(Y), and atelisite-(Y), which have been observed in these HREE deposits. These volatile-rich REE mineral phases can easily be dissolved during weathering and release HREE3+ to generate ion-adsorption HREE deposits. Therefore, we conclude that the granitic magma progression to a volatile-HREE-rich magmatic-hydrothermal system is vital for the generation of HREE ion-adsorption deposits. The long-term Mesozoic extension of the South China favors the generation of highly fractionated granites and is thus important for the generation of HREE ion-adsorption deposits. Furthermore, the zircons generated in a volatile-rich environment could be used to determine the HREE ion-adsorption mineralization potential of granites.

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