TESS Seminars 2020 Seminar Series

2020 Seminar Series

Wednesday, 28th October 2020 | Presented by Prof Eric Wolanski | Adjunct JCU (Townsville campus)

Abstract:

Classical oceanography models need to be much improved so as to reproduce the intense meso-scale and sub-meso scale turbulence that prevails and is observed by satellite altimetry. This turbulence includes energetic eddies, jets and filaments that determine the connectivity between islands and reefs. The models suffer from insufficient knowledge of the import of meso-scale turbulence at the open boundaries, an inability to generate this turbulence internally, and to assimilate in real time the satellite observations. Eric has developed a method to assimilate the observed chaotic water currents and it produces novel results on fish connectivity in Micronesia, the Galapagos, the South China Sea, and the Great Barrier Reef-Coral Sea system.

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Wednesday, 21st October 2020 | Presented by A/Prof Lucas Cernusak | JCU (Cairns campus)

Abstract:

Stomatal conductance impacts both photosynthesis and transpiration, and is therefore fundamental to the global carbon and water cycles, food production, and ecosystem services.  Mathematical models provide the primary means of analysing this important leaf gas exchange parameter.  A nearly universal assumption in such models is that the relative humidity inside leaves remains saturated under all conditions.  However, this assumption has not been well tested.  A/Prof Lucas will present recent research aimed at testing this assumption using novel techniques, and discuss outstanding questions with fundamental implications for leaf water relations.

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Wednesday, 14th October 2020 | Presented by Dr Rachel Hay | Lecturer JCU (Townsville campus)

Abstract:

The presentation explores the engagement of women and technology in Agriculture. It highlights the importance of rural women's use of, and role in managing, technology and the valuable skills and attributes that rural women bring to decision-making in management and in leadership.

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Wednesday, 7th October 2020 | Presented by A/Prof Mario Vallejo-Marin | University of Stirling (UK)

Abstract:

Pollen plays a key role in the life of both bees and plants. Bees need pollen as a source of protein to feed their larvae, and plants rely on it for fertilising and producing seeds. It is no surprise that bees have evolved a variety of strategies to collect pollen grains from flowers, among which is the use of powerful vibrations to dislodge and collect pollen from certain flowers. Although more than half of all bee species use vibrations to collect pollen from flowers, we still do not know why some bees buzz for pollen and others do not. The specialised morphologies of these buzz-pollinated flowers is thought to have evolved as a mechanism to restrict pollen access in an evolutionary interplay between plants and their buzzing visitors. The last few years have seen a rapid increase in buzz pollination research from biomechanic studies of vibrations to phylogenetic investigations to ecological and evolutionary analyses. However, we are still at the early stages of fully understanding the phenomenon of buzz pollination. In this talk I will talk about what is buzz pollination and how it works, and present results from my lab, focusing on recent findings of how floral vibrations differ from other types of vibrations produced by bees and how closely related plant species have evolved contrasting strategies to release pollen following bee vibrations.

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Wednesday, 23rd September 2020 | Presented by Dr Kearrin Sims | Lecturer, James Cook University (Cairns campus) |

Abstract:

Every Southeast Asian states socio-economic development plan for the past decade stress that its future requires greater regional connectivity. A key regional push for the reports of leading multilateral institutions as well as in all ASEAN ‘roadmaps’ and ‘blueprints’. Dr Sims will draw on Murray and Overton’s (2016) work on retroliberalism to argue the Southeast Asia’s post-2008 and will discuss more than 20 months of in-country fieldwork and hundreds of interviews, examining repeated bouts of dispossession in Laos. This presentations central aim is a) to demonstrate that retroliberalism’s normalisation of infrastructure connectivity as constitutive of development is producing increasingly violent development outcomes, and b) that intersectional interrogations of infrastructure violence are needed to better understand such outcomes.  Fieldwork first commenced in 2009 and remains ongoing.

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Wednesday, 16th September 2020 | Presented by Dr Debbie Symons | RMIT University

Abstract: The recovery and recycling of resources is a highly important issue currently facing the world.  The global population and non-renewable resource consumption per capita are increasing at a greater rate. Peak oil and peak phosphorus are probably the major concerns in the near future; while oil has been replaced by other forms of energy, for example hydrogen, phosphorus has no substitute. Peak phosphorus will occur in the next two decades, consequently a problem of food security may arise because this element is fundamental for plant growth and cannot be chemically synthesised or produced. Recovering nutrients, energy and chemicals from biomass waste in particular biosolids could be a viable solution to manage the ever-increasing amounts of waste while mitigating its environmental impact and sustainably replacing non-renewable resources. The main objective of my research is indeed to explore technologies geared towards the circular economy to build a new and innovative economy around biomass waste.

Wednesday, 09th September 2020 | Presented by Dr Elsa Antunes | James Cook University (Townsville campus)

Abstract: The recovery and recycling of resources is a highly important issue currently facing the world.  The global population and non-renewable resource consumption per capita are increasing at a greater rate. Peak oil and peak phosphorus are probably the major concerns in the near future; while oil has been replaced by other forms of energy, for example hydrogen, phosphorus has no substitute. Peak phosphorus will occur in the next two decades, consequently a problem of food security may arise because this element is fundamental for plant growth and cannot be chemically synthesised or produced. Recovering nutrients, energy and chemicals from biomass waste in particular biosolids could be a viable solution to manage the ever-increasing amounts of waste while mitigating its environmental impact and sustainably replacing non-renewable resources. The main objective of my research is indeed to explore technologies geared towards the circular economy to build a new and innovative economy around biomass waste.

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Wednesday, 2nd September 2020 | Presented by Dr Sean Foley | FRGS Director, EcoAsia Consulting

Abstract: Over the last two decades, global heating has become a major threat to the critical tropical habitats and regions in the already heavily stressed Mekong region (~192 Mha in area). Our recent work analysed the forest losses in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam over 2000-18 and has clarified the need for a comprehensive assessment of the state of and threats to biodiversity and human wellbeing in this major tropical hotspot.

Recent studies predicts that in 2040 and 2060, a step-change caused by rising temperatures will abruptly endanger plant and animal taxa, especially in the tropics. In the Mekong, these will exacerbate already severe threats to biodiversity from illegal logging, commodity export agriculture expansion, infrastructure construction and industrial-scale wildlife hunting and poaching.

Phase one of the assessment aims to identify the locations and severity of threats to biodiversity from climate and human activities at high resolution (~1 km2). Landsat-based geospatial analyses will be used to develop sampling frameworks for next phase fieldwork in Key Biodiversity and Protected Areas. Results from phase two will be more extensive and detailed findings, including suggestions for regional conservation policy and management.

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Wednesday, 26th August 2020 | Presented by PhD Candidate Nicolas Younes | James Cook University (Townsville campus)

Mangroves store more carbon than other tropical forests, and phenology plays an important role in regulating carbon sequestration and storage. Understanding phenology, therefore, is essential to measuring and predicting land-atmosphere interactions, the carbon and water cycles, and, ultimately, the response of vegetation to a changing climate. Mangrove phenology is often studied at the plot scale, and requires expensive and time-consuming fieldwork. Few studies have used satellites to monitor mangrove phenology, and fewer have compared field observations with satellite-derived phenology. In this thesis, I investigate the effects of water depth, spatial resolution, and site selection on satellite-derived phenology, I examine the suitability of different spectral indices to detect vegetation fraction, and I present a novel, data-driven approach to examining mangrove phenology using the Landsat archive. To validate the phenology models, I combined field observations and published data, with hundreds of satellite images from six regions in eastern and northern Australia. Here, I demonstrate that: 1) not all spectral indices perform well when detecting vegetation fraction; 2)  we can use Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) on a pixel-by-pixel basis and the resulting models correlate well with field-observed phenology; 3) mangrove phenology is site dependent; 4) fully parametric methods over-simplify the phenology of mangroves; and 5) the spatial resolution, temporal coverage, site selection, and pre-processing techniques have subtle, but significant effects on the phenology models. In the future, GAMs can be combined with rainfall and temperature datasets, to determine the influence these drivers have on mangrove phenology. With increasing temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns, GAMs will become an important tool to forecast changes in phenology, carbon sequestration, and vegetation growth rates.

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Wednesday, 19th August 2020 | Presented by A/Prof Lori Lach and Dr Peter Yeeles | James Cook University (Cairns campus)

Abstract: Queensland is something of a hotspot within Australia for invasive species, and there are multiple eradication programs for invasive weeds and pests underway. Eradication programs of any flavour face some common challenges: determining when eradication has actually occurred and doing as little harm as possible to non-target species in the process. Both of these are especially important and difficult when your target organism is hard to find and when the area in question is large and home the most irreplaceable terrestrial biodiversity on the planet. We, and others in our lab group, provide scientific support to the Wet Tropics Management Authority in their efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes) in areas within and next to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.  In our talk we’ll focus on some of the work we’ve done towards assessing the probability of absence of yellow crazy ants from treated areas.  We also present results of an experiment in which we use our knowledge of ant ecology to test whether the toxin application rate can be reduced and still achieve control.

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Wednesday, 12th August 2020 | Presented by Prof Andrew Krockenberger | James Cook University (Cairns campus)

Abstract: Prof Andrew will outline some of the recent improvements in JCU’s core research infrastructure, new capabilities and opportunities that rise out of those for JCU (and other) researchers as well as improved opportunities to support teaching. He will go through a set of examples of the new capabilities that are, or shortly will be available to enable existing and new areas of research and teaching at JCU, including;

  • the development of carbon and water-flux instrumentation at JCU’s Savanna Field Station, Fletcherview, which is a working cattle station in the Burdekin catchment about 30km north of Charters Towers, providing JCU researchers a unique insight to this catchment that is at the heart of potential expansion of irrigated agriculture in North QLD and water quality for the GBR.
  • recent expansion of educational capability and engagement with QLD’s secondary school’s marine science at Orpheus Island Research Station
  • establishment of power and communications for sensors and instrumentation at Daintree Rainforest Observatory
  • extension of the micro-analysis capabilities of the Advanced Analytical Centre to element and isotope mapping in tissue samples

* We are sorry but for technical reasons, the video recording is not available for this presentation

Wednesday, 05th August 2020 | Presented by Distinguished Prof Bill Laurance |James Cook University - Cairns campus

Tropical forests, the world’s most biologically diverse ecosystems, are being felled and fragmented at rates that lack historical precedent. I will describe the dynamics and shifting composition of fragmented forests in central Amazonia, using a 40-year dataset from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project. Surprisingly few aspects of rainforest ecology are unaffected by fragmentation. Edge effects, rare weather events and changes in the composition of modified vegetation surrounding fragments have had strong effects on fragment ecology. In general, populations and communities of species in fragments are hyperdynamic relative to nearby intact forest. The effects of fragmentation appear to interact synergistically with other anthropogenic threats such as logging, hunting, fire and large-scale climate change, creating an even greater peril for the Amazonian biota.

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Wednesday, 20th May 2020 | Presented by Prof John Terborgh|Duke University

Large herbivores, such as elephants, rhinos, and hippos, are known as “ecosystem engineers” for their capacity to transform vegetation. Such animals have been amply studied in savanna environments in Africa and South Asia where they can be observed and their activities quantified. But large herbivorous mammals are not restricted to open environments; they also occur in closed-canopy forests where direct observations are precluded, making their impacts difficult to study. A better understanding of the role of megaherbivores in tall forests is of more than academic interest because the ecological roles of such animals is being lost to poaching, logging, land clearing, and other human activities almost everywhere they still persist. Does the loss of large herbivores pose a threat to forest ecosystem diversity and stability? If their impacts are large, their loss could have consequences that cascade through the ecosystem, perhaps to the detriment of a broader slice of biodiversity. For the last decade, my wife, Lisa Davenport, and I have been evaluating the impacts of elephants and other large herbivores in equatorial forests in Africa (Gabon) and Asia (Malaysia). As is true in savannas, elephants and other large herbivores exert profound effects on the structure and species diversity of these forests, reducing stem counts, altering diversity in some surprising ways, and effectively eliminating whole categories of species, at least on local scales. The effect of large herbivores on plant species diversity is thus strongly negative, but in a curious twist, forests in which such animals have been extirpated experience diversity bounce-back. Is there a conservation message in this? Yes, but it has as much to do with other aspects of herbivore ecology as with their direct effects on plant species diversity. If you come to the talk, you’ll find out why.

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Wednesday, 13th May 2020 | Presented by Dr Tobin Northfield| Assistant Professor (WSU) and Adjunct Senior Lecturer (JCU)

Working to produce food for nearly 8 billion people globally amidst rampant evidence of a sixth mass extinction is enough to stimulate an existential crisis. Conservation biologists work to reduce the environmental impacts of food production, while agroecologists work to maximize the ecosystem services often encouraged by those same conservation activities. Unfortunately, the keys to balancing conservation and food production are likely dependent on the types of agriculture, including the environment in which it occurs and the types of ecosystem services that it depends on. Here, I will discuss the impacts of agriculture on conservation of animals such as birds and butterflies, as well as conservation activities that improve ecosystem services such as pollination and pest control. Finally, I will discuss global trends in the impacts of farm management strategies on the consistency of each, environmental impact reduction and agricultural production.

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Wednesday, 6th May 2020 | Presented by Prof Jeff Sayers|Adjunct Professor (JCU)

I will present our experiences of engaging in long-term research to support biodiversity conservation in a set of “Sentinel Landscapes” in Indonesia and Central Africa. This work now involves several scientists from JCU and UBC who collaborate with universities, conservation NGOs and local people in the host countries. We are working in biodiverse tropical forest areas where there are also high levels of human poverty. Land uses are changing rapidly in these areas and presenting trade-offs between improving livelihoods of the people and maintaining biodiversity. These are the frontier areas where the struggle to conserve the world’s tropical biodiversity will be won or lost. We advocate for “Transdisciplinary” research that draws upon knowledge and skills from a diversity of scientific disciplines but also engages strongly with local resource users and decision makers. We do not attempt to produce plans or blue-prints for conservation – instead we seek to “nudge” the behaviour of the people whose decisions determine the future of the landscapes. We would like to use this seminar to reinforce the collaboration between JCU, UBC and our colleagues in Indonesia.

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Wednesday, 29th April 2020 | Presented by Dr Ashley Field |Senior Botanist (Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment and Science; Australian Tropical Herbarium)

Phlegmariurus is an ancient genus in the family Lycopodiaceae with a modern diversity of 250 species spread across the wet tropics, wet subtropics and wet temperate zones globally. We explore hypotheses about the biogeographic radiation, biome shifts and transitions between the epiphytic and terrestrial niches in Phlegmariurus using phylogenetic data from Sanger-sequencing and Target-sequence capture from a comprehensive global sampling. We infer that Phlegmariurus is most likely of Gondwanan origin, and that it diverged from the Laurasian Huperzia and Gondwawan Phylloglossum in the Mesozoic. Phlegmariurus has subsequently diverged into a Neotropical and Palaeotropical radiations in the Eocene, with the Neotropical radiation repeatedly dispersing both eastwards and westwards into the Palaeotropics to the present. Conversely, the Palaeotropical radiation has dispersing into the Neotropics only once. The orogenesis of the Andes is likely to have been a primary driver of the shift of Phlegmariurus back into the terrestrial niche and its subsequent hyperdiversification and local endemism in the montane Neotropics. In contrast, the Palaeotropical radiation remains predominated by epiphytes from tropical rainforests, with secondary terrestrialisation being comparatively rare and restricted to a few facultative species in the temperate zones. Long distance dispersal and specialisation within the epiphytic habitat appear to be important factors in the diversification of Phlegmariurus in the Palaeotropics with multiple dispersals reaching even the most remote forested Oceanic islands of the Pacific.

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Wednesday, 8th April 2020 | Presented by Dr Lisa Davenport | University of Florida

Shallow lakes possess a well-known propensity to change states in response to experimental manipulations of top predators. In most such experiments to date, the top piscivore in the system has been a fish, e. g., largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). However, warm temperate and tropical lakes typically support non-piscine piscivores, including mammals, birds and reptiles. The roles of these air-breathing piscivores has been little investigated and whether, individually or collectively, the consumption of fish prey by these groups exceeds that of piscine piscivores remains unknown. We report on both a longitudinal (2001 – 2018) and a cross-sectional (2012) study of the bird, caiman and giant otter populations of floodplain lakes in the Manu National Park in Peru. We compare the roles of the three groups, after removing the effects of taxonomic status and body mass, using allometric equations to estimate FMR (field metabolic rate) for each group in each lake. Giant otters emerge as the dominant piscivore in lakes that support a resident group with an energy requirement more than twice that of all piscivorous birds and more than 7 times that of caiman. However, giant otters were resident in only 8 of 27 surveyed lakes in the Río Manu Basin. Indirect evidence suggests that these 8 lakes are more productive than lakes not occupied by otters, and they are characteristically green (i.e. dominated by phytoplankton rather than submerged or floating aquatic plants). We propose that enhanced productivity of these lake ecosystems may be facilitated by the presence of otters, with an underlying 5-tiered trophic structure.

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Wednesday, 1st April 2020 | Presented by Dr Ariana Lambrides | Post Doctoral Research Fellow-JCU

Marine fisheries have been central to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s connection to sea country in Queensland for millennia. Archaeological approaches are well suited to explore these human-environmental relationships across broad temporal and spatial scales, extending well beyond historical fisheries data routinely used to inform contemporary fisheries management. In recent years there has been increasing use of archaeological data-sets to inform marine resource management and food security, and importantly enhance social resilience through Indigenous community partnerships.

We undertook a meta-analysis of archaeological evidence of fish exploitation along the eastern Queensland coast to explore geographic variability in the role of fish within subsistence regimes and changes in targeted fish species through time. Results indicate the occurrence of mixed species fisheries, which were locally and regionally variable in terms of the fish species captured and habitats exploited. In some cases, an increase through time in the range of fish species targeted was reported. While resource selection was likely mediated by local ecological knowledge and cultural preferences, these outcomes importantly support existing archaeological models for the region, including documented shifts in subsistence regimes during the mid-to-late Holocene, and associated increased reliance on marine resources and expansion in diet breadth. While gaps in our knowledge remain, particularly the exploitation of islands along the length of the Great Barrier Reef, current research in partnership with traditional owners in the Lizard Island Group has returned a large fish bone assemblage. This record will provide an unparalleled opportunity to assess the dynamic role of fish and fishing practices throughout the Holocene in this region.

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Wednesday, 25th March 2020 | Presented by Dr Daniel Montesinos | Senior Research Fellow ATH/JCU

Ecological intensification aims to counter-balance the negative impacts of agriculture and forestry intensification by promoting management interventions that maximize ecosystem services. Ecological intensification is a knowledge intensive process that requires optimal management of nature’s ecological functions and biodiversity to improve agricultural system performance, efficiency and farmers’ and foresters’ livelihoods. This approach intends to harness the benefits of increasing ecosystem services and biodiversity in a way that maximizes production, but minimizes environmental impacts by decreasing, but not excluding, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or energy. Ecological intensification is gaining popularity due to its down-to-earth results-based approach, and includes practices that are generally recognized as good practices in both agriculture and forestry, such as: conservation tillage, crop rotation, and mixed cropping.

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Wednesday, 18th March 2020 | Presented by A/Prof Paul Nelson|James Cook University

Efficient production of food entails raising nitrogen concentrations in soil and water above levels found in natural ecosystems. Some nitrogen is inevitably lost from the paddock or pond, especially in high rainfall environments. We are testing the ability of ‘denitrification bioreactors’ to remove nitrogen from water leaving sugarcane and fish farms, in a first for the tropics. We are testing various configurations of bioreactors in various situations, and testing the effects of factors such as nutrient concentration, water salinity and retention time. This talk will present interim results of the research.

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Wednesday, 11th March 2020 | Presented by Dr Cath Moran (ecologist, CSIRO) A/Prof Lori Lach (JCU) Mr Andrew Robinson (Earth Guardians)

How we manage for biosecurity in the Wet Tropics with a changing climate (Cath Moran):

Increasing temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, rising sea levels and higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are changing the conditions that affect the growth and survival of invasive species. These changes benefit some invasive species and disadvantage others. It is likely that increasing climate-driven disturbance will advantage many invasive species, and powerful cyclones, widespread and intense bushfires, and frequent floods are expected to create more opportunities for pest plants and animals to invade new areas. New invasive species are also being dispersed in floodwaters, changing ocean currents and wind patterns and via human population movements. Adapting management of invasive species to the impacts of climate change will involve re-assessing the risk from introduced species under changing conditions, increasing vigilance for emerging problems and possibly re-defining our concept of what is ‘natural’

Invasive ants and climate change—what we know and what we need to know to understand future threats (Lori Lach):

When climate change and invasive species are mentioned together, it is usually in the context of predicting whether a given species would be able to establish in a given area under future climate scenarios. But abiotic suitability as it affects establishment is only one aspect of invasive species ecology that might be affected by climate change. The spread, impact, and management of invasive species will also be affected by changes to temperature and rainfall patterns. Ants are among the most formidable of invasive species, and Australia spends millions of dollars annually attempting to eradicate some of the worst. In my talk, I’ll focus on how current and predicted changes to our climate may affect ant abundance, which underpins both the spread and impact of these invaders. ’ll also describe how increased variability in seasonal weather patterns is already vexing invasive ant management programs, and, overlain with potential changes to ant biology, will make eradication or containment even more challenging. Throughout my talk, I will highlight the many gaps in our knowledge that prevent us from making strong predictions, as well as point out where there is cause for optimism.

The Role of Citizen Science in Invasive Species and Climate Change (Andrew Robinson):

As the impact of climate change increases before our eyes, established scientific practice is struggling even more to protect biodiversity and agriculture from invasive species. Institutional science, weighed down in Australia by 250 years of colonial history, lacks the necessary resource, trust and nimbleness to make meaningful, long-term change in the face of the current climate crisis. A solution lies in a transformation of scientific practice itself - something which is becoming more possible these days due to the latest developments in citizen science practice and the latest technologies being produced right here in Australia. I’ll be talking about how, if we hope to reduce the impact of invasive species and climate change in Australia, it's both necessary and easy to start moving rigorous scientific practice out of traditional science institutions and into the hands of local communities, indigenous scientists, young people and anyone who wishes to be part of saving life on Earth.

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Wednesday, 4th March 2020 | Presented by A/Prof Kerrylee Rogers |University of Wollongong

Abstract: Mangroves occur at the coast and will be central to any discussion regarding the implications of sea-level rise for coastal communities. As mangrove forests provide crucial ecosystem services for people in coastal communities, there is an immediate and critical need to understand and project the capacity of mangrove forests to adapt to anticipated accelerating sea-level rise. Improved access to spatial data has facilitated the application of spatial models that project changes to mangrove accommodation space with sea-level rise. Scientists presently have relatively good understanding of the behaviour of mangrove forests at millennial timescales, and processes operating at contemporary timescales. However, there is less certainty about the response of mangrove forests at decadal to century timescales. It is now time for mangrove scientists to integrate data across spatial scales and prioritise accuracy over precision when undertaking projections. These challenges are discussed in the context of lessons learnt whilst researching mangrove forests in Australia and elsewhere. This research emphasises the need for cross-disciplinary research projects and international collaboration between physical and social scientists.

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Wednesday, 26th February 2020 | Presented by Distinguished Professor Michael Bird|JCU

The peopling of Sahul (the combined landmass of Australia and New Guinea) represents the earliest trans-oceanic migration event in human history. Archaeological data and demographic modelling suggest that the peopling of the continent required substantial populations, occurred within a few thousand years, and encompassed environments ranging from hyper-arid deserts to temperate uplands and tropical rainforests. How this migration through an empty continent occurred, or how humans responded to the physical environment they encountered has, however, remained largely speculative. By constructing a new, fine-scale (250m resolution) digital elevation model for Sahul, coupled with a fine-scale viewshed analysis of landscape prominence for the entire continent, we developed a point process-to-network function whereby the most parsimonious routes these first people likely traversed emerge.

Out of ~125 billion created paths, our analysis revealed a small number of major pathways - super-highways - transecting the continent, validated against archaeological data, suggesting that the early Sahulians adopted a set of fundamental rules for physiological capacity, attraction to landscape features and freshwater distribution to ensure survival and success. This early continental peopling can be described by basic rules of adaptation to local landscape features, with people minimizing the likelihood of failure, even without previous experience of novel landscapes. Results demonstrate the extraordinary cultural plasticity of humans to adapt to novel and challenging environments. Our analyses provide targets for future archaeological investigation, as well as informing current policy makers planning for present day migration as a result of climate disruption, and methods to more robustly interrogate current Out-of-Africa debates.

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