The Guiding Framework

In order to excel in the management roles, managers are required to demonstrate a set of core management competencies. The level of competence that managers must demonstrate in order to deliver satisfactory performance vary between management levels and the nature of positions. The set of core management competencies enables competency-based education and serves as guiding principles for management development and education.

Many management competency frameworks have been developed around the world. This group has adopted the MCAP Framework originally developed and validated in the Australian context by A/Professor Zhanming Liang and colleagues, which has now been used in a number of Asia Pacific countries.

The MCAP framework details the six core competencies required by health service managers in order to excel in their positions with professionalism embedded across all of the competencies.

Competencies for Health Service Managers – the MCAP Framework1,2,3

MCAP Framework diagram

Management Competency Development4,5

The design of the training, development and coaching will be based on the understanding of the pyramidal relationship between tasks, roles, competencies and knowledge/skills/attitudes. Management positions determine the knowledge, skills and attitudes required of managers. All training aims to enable managers to develop and apply the required competencies in their positions.

Management Competency Development pyramid


  1. Liang Z, Howard P, Leggat S & Bartram T. (2018). Development and Validation of Health Service Management Competencies. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 32(2):157-175.
  2. Howard P, Liang Z, Leggat S &Karimi L. (2018). Validation of a management competency assessment tool for health service managers. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 32(1):113-134.
  3. Liang Z. Blackstock F, Howard P et al.  (2020). A health management competency framework for Australia.  Australian Health Review, 2020, 44(6):958-964.
  4. Liang Z, Leggat S, Howard, P & Koh L. (2013). What makes a hospital manager competent at the middle and senior levels. Australian Health Review, 37(5):566-573.
  5. Liang Z, Blackstock F, Howard P et al. (2018). An evidence-based approach to understanding the competency development needs of the health service management workforce in Australia. BMC Health Services Research, 18 (976):1-12.