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Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA)
The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) is an academic writing test that is designed to gauge the academic writing abilities of research degree candidates who have English as an Additional Language (EAL). The test helps the Graduate Research School to understand how best to support candidates in developing their writing skills. Those who do require assistance will receive targeted and flexible support tailored to their requirements. People undertaking a PELA will be asked to write an academic paragraph in response to a statement. The outcome of this assessment will determine each candidate’s writing support plan. The most intensive level of support will involve regular contact with writing support staff and attendance at compulsory seminar sessions, as well as further writing assessment and a re-test. The PELA was established by the JCU Graduate Research School (GRS) and has been operating since the beginning of 2013.
Assessment dates for 2018
During the first half of the year, PELA tests are scheduled at regular intervals in Townsville, depending upon numbers of incoming EAL candidates who fit the criteria for PELA testing. Cairns-based tests will be held according to numbers of incoming students and will generally be linked to visits to Cairns by Dr Liz Tynan.
PELA sessions have been scheduled for Semester 1, 2018 as follows:
|Tuesday 3 April 2018||1:30pm||Townsville Building 017, Room 151|
|Tuesday 24 April 2018||1:30pm||Townsville Building 017, Room 151|
|Tuesday 22 May 2018||1:30pm||Townsville Building 017, Room 151|
|Tuesday 19 June 2018||1:30pm||Townsville Building 017, Room 151|
Purpose of PELA
Although language is not the sole defining factor of academic success, there does appear to be an aptitude threshold below which candidates may experience difficulty in managing their study. Research suggests that international EAL research candidates often encounter diverse and greater challenges in their postgraduate research experience than their native English speaking counterparts, particularly in their efforts to develop their academic writing skills in English to meet the demands of thesis writing. Inadequate English skills put research candidates at risk of delayed or non-completion, or of significant stresses and obstacles throughout candidature. The PELA is designed to pick up on these potential problems early, and put in place effective measures to avoid complications later. A JCU HDR requires a high standard of academic writing, and the PELA has been successful in ensuring that all EAL HDR candidates who require assistance will receive it in a timely and effective manner.
Who has to undertake the PELA?
Candidates who are required to undertake the PELA test will be contacted by the Graduate Research School as soon as possible after they commence. The PELA must be undertaken by any EAL research degree candidate entering JCU who falls into the following categories:
- Received an IELTS (International English Language Testing System) score below 7.0 overall or for any sub-skill (writing, reading, speaking or listening);
- Received a waiver of JCU English Language Requirements (ELR), including candidates who received a waiver on the basis of a Pre-Entry Language Assessment (PrELA);
- Gained ELR on the basis of two years’ tertiary study in an approved country;
- Transferred from a current Masters by Research to a PhD and would have been required to do the PELA on entry to the Masters;
- Has undertaken (or is undertaking) a Direct Entry pathway program;
- Received a writing score of below 23 for the Internet-based TOEFL (or 5.5 for paper-based); or
- Received a score below 72 for a Pearson test.
Why should students undergo a PELA when they met the minimum English Language Requirement for entry into their research degree?
Experience has shown that even though a candidate has been accepted into the degree, those who fall into the categories above may still have language issues during research degree candidature. The PELA will give JCU a better idea of whether candidates are likely to struggle with writing, and put in place measures to assist them from the beginning.
Time length of test
The PELA is a quick test. Students will be given five minutes to read the information in the paper and plan their response to the question. They will then have 15 minutes to prepare a short response.
Is there anything students need to do before they get to the test?
No, students do not need to do any preparation before the PELA test.
How is the PELA marked?
The marking criteria are based upon those used by the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), though they have been adapted to fit the needs of a research writing test. The criteria cover language usage elements such as grammar and punctuation, and also for the capacity of the candidate to develop a simple argument. These criteria are included in the PELA document and candidates are allowed five minutes before the start of the test to read through this material.
When will students be notified of their result?
Within seven working days of completing the test students will be sent an email informing them of the result and explaining what they need to do next. The email will be copied to their primary advisor as well.
What do the results mean?
If a candidate receives a Band 3 result (that is, a Fail) they will be required to meet with Dr Liz Tynan from the GRS and Ms Kellie Johns from Learning, Teaching and Student Engagement (LTSE) to discuss their compulsory writing support plan. The primary advisor will be kept informed about the writing support plan as well. This plan will operate for an initial period of approximately six months, at which time the candidate will be asked to undergo a second PELA test to gauge their progress in developing their academic writing skills. Depending upon the outcome of that second test, the student will either be deemed to be an independent academic writer without further obligations under PELA, or an extended writing support plan will be devised for the following six months.
If a candidate receives a Band 2 result (that is, a Borderline Pass), they will be invited to attend a meeting with Dr Liz Tynan and Ms Kellie Johns to discuss an optional, but highly recommended, writing support plan. This plan will operate for an initial period of approximately six months, at which time the candidate may opt to undergo a second PELA test to gauge their progress in developing their academic writing skills. Depending upon the outcome of that second test, the student may still need some assistance and a new plan will be devised.
If a candidate receives a Band 1 result (that is, a Pass), they will not be required to participate in a writing support plan, though they will still be required to undertake the compulsory Skills for International Postgraduates (SKIP) program.
What happens if a candidate fails the PELA?
A Band 3 (Fail) result does not affect degree enrolment. Instead, it should be seen as a clear signal that the candidate will require academic writing support, and they will be required to participate in the writing support program. Band 3 candidates are expected to participate in a tailored writing support plan that will be structured to fit around fieldwork and other research project commitments. If the candidate consistently does not participate without a good reason, future one-on-one academic writing or editing assistance may not be provided. A Fail grade for PELA points to extremely serious academic writing problems, and candidates benefit when they approach the support offered in a positive manner.
What is a writing support plan?
A writing support program provides specified activities that must be undertaken by anyone receiving a Band 3 result, or which are recommended for anyone receiving a Band 2 result. A primary element of the plan is regular attendance at a peer writing support workshop conducted by Ms Kellie Johns. This workshop is designed to work with the writing and reading currently being undertaken by the candidate – it does not involve assignments or other unrelated work. Other elements of the plan may include compulsory attendance at specified research skills workshops, meetings with Dr Liz Tynan and Ms Kellie Johns and a follow-up PELA at the end of the initial six-month plan.
Will the primary advisor be notified of a student’s PELA result?
Yes, the primary advisor will be copied to the message that each candidate receives notifying them of their PELA result. All advisors are welcome at any time to seek further information from Dr Liz Tynan about the PELA results for any research degree candidates they are supervising. Dr Tynan also holds regular briefing sessions for advisors to let them know about PELA.
Background to the PELA
As identified in James Cook University’s English language and Numeracy Policy (2012), “JCU has a responsibility to ensure that all students develop key graduate attributes including a level of English language and numeracy proficiency that will allow them to participate effectively and productively in their courses and subsequent employment” (p. 2), and that, “The University provides a supportive social and academic environment which promotes students’ language and numeracy development” (p. 2). Arising from this, the Policy identifies a number of procedures for supporting Higher Degree Research (HDR) candidates to develop proficiency in English language and numeracy; one such procedure is the use of a diagnostic tool to identify candidates’ academic language needs early in their candidature. While the internationalisation of higher education has seen a growing number of HDR students from a diverse range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds enrolling in James Cook University (JCU), the literature suggests international Non–English Speaking Background (NESB) research students often encounter diverse and greater challenges in their postgraduate research experience than their domestic native English speaking counterparts (e.g. Allison, Cooley, Lewkowicz & Nunan, 1998; Bartlett & Chanock, 2003; Cadman, 2000; Larcombe, McCosker & O’Loughlin, 2007), particularly in their efforts to develop their academic writing skills in English to meet the embedded demands of thesis writing.
Further information about the PELA may be obtained by contacting:
A/Prof Liz Tynan
Senior Lecturer and Co-ordinator, Research Student Academic Support
Graduate Research School
Ms Kellie Johns
Learning, Teaching and Student Engagement